- I. Abstract
- A. Background & History
- B. Collective Intelligence
- C. We the People
- D. Executive Summary
E. Collaboration & Networks
1. The Collective
- a. Categories & Forums
- b. Topics & Threads
- c. Posts & Replies
- d. User Profiles
- e. Moderators & Administrators
- f. Search Function
- g. Private Messaging
h. Rules & Guidelines
- i. Exploitation
- ii. Identification
- iii. SPAM
- i. The Collective Message Board Forum
- 1. The Collective
III. The United States Federal Government
- 1. Definition
- 2. Historical Background
- 3. Importance
C. Executive Branch
- 1. Definition & Role
2. Structure & Composition
- a. Department of Agriculture
- b. Department of Health & Human Services
c. Department of the Treasury
- i. Alcohol & Tobacco Tax & Trade Bureau
- ii. Bureau of Engraving & Printing
- iii. Bureau of the Fiscal Service
- iv. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network
- v. Internal Revenue Service
- vi. Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
- vii. Office of Inspector General
- viii. Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration
- ix. United States Mint
- d. National Aeronautics & Space Administration
- e. Securities & Exchange Commission
- f. Social Security Administration
- g. Environmental Protection Agency
h. Department of the Interior
- i. Bureau of Indian Affairs
- ii. Bureau of Land Management
- iii. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
- iv. Bureau of Reclamation
- v. Bureau of Safety & Environmental Enforcement
- vi. National Park Service
- vii. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation & Enforcement
- viii. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
- ix. U.S. Geological Survey
- 3. Powers & Responsibilities
- D. Judicial Branch
- E. State & Local Governments
- F. State & Local Governments
G. United States Constitution
- 1. Article I
- 2. Article II
- 3. Article III
- 4. Article IV
- 5. Article V
- 6. Article VI
- 7. Article VII
8. Bill of Rights
- a. First Amendment
- b. Second Amendment
- c. Third Amendment
- d. Forth Amendment
- e. Fifth Amendment
- f. Sixth Amendment
- g. Seventh Amendment
- h. Eighth Amendment
- i. Ninth Amendment
- j. Tenth Amendment
- A. Introduction
- IV. Investment & Trading Testable Hypothesis: Section IV - In this section, we will present our overarching hypothesis that forms the foundation of our trading approach. It outlines the core principles and assumptions upon which our strategy is based.
- A. Statistical Validity & Strict Discipline: Section IV.A - In this section, we delve into the significance of statistical validity and the need for maintaining strict discipline in our investment and trading approach. These factors are essential for ensuring the reliability and integrity of our strategy.
- 1. Optimal Sample Size: Section IV.A.1 - Determining the optimal sample size is essential for achieving statistical validity. It involves selecting a sufficient number of data points or observations to provide reliable and representative results. By using an appropriate sample size, we aim to minimize sampling errors and increase the accuracy of our analysis.
- 2. Sampling Method: Section IV.A.2 - The sampling method refers to the approach used to select data points from the larger population for analysis. It is important to choose a sampling method that ensures randomness and unbiased representation. Common sampling methods include simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling. The choice of sampling method depends on the nature of the data and research objectives.
- 3. Control Group vs Experiment Group: Section IV.A.3 - In some cases, it may be necessary to compare the performance of different groups or treatments within an investment strategy. The control group represents the baseline or reference group, while the experiment group involves applying a specific change or intervention. By comparing the performance of these groups, we can assess the impact of the intervention and evaluate its effectiveness.
- 4. Statistical Significance: Section IV.A.4 - Statistical significance is a measure of the likelihood that observed results are not due to chance. It helps us determine whether the differences or relationships observed in our data are statistically meaningful. By conducting statistical tests and analyzing p-values or confidence intervals, we can assess the significance of our findings and make informed decisions based on the results.
- 5. Confounding, Independent, & Dependent Variables: Section IV.A.5 - In investment and trading analysis, it is crucial to identify and account for confounding variables that may influence the relationship between independent and dependent variables. Independent variables are the factors or variables we manipulate or control, while dependent variables are the outcomes or variables we measure or observe. Confounding variables are additional factors that can impact the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Properly accounting for these variables helps ensure the accuracy and reliability of our analysis. These statistical considerations provide a solid foundation for our investment and trading approach, allowing us to make informed decisions based on reliable data and analysis.
- B. Trade Volume: Section IV.B - Trade volume refers to the number of shares or contracts traded within a specified period. It is an important metric in investment and trading analysis as it provides insights into market liquidity and investor participation. Analyzing trade volume patterns can help identify trends, assess market sentiment, and determine the level of interest in a particular asset.
- C. Price Percentage Change: Section IV.C - Price percentage change measures the percentage increase or decrease in the price of an asset over a given period. It is a commonly used metric to assess the volatility and performance of investments. By tracking price percentage changes, investors can identify trends, assess market movements, and make informed decisions based on the observed price dynamics.
- D. Bollinger Bands: Section IV.D - Bollinger Bands are a technical analysis tool that consists of a set of lines plotted two standard deviations above and below a moving average. These bands provide a visual representation of price volatility and can be used to identify potential overbought or oversold conditions in the market. Traders often use Bollinger Bands to generate trading signals and determine entry and exit points for their positions.
- E. Trend Following Strategy: Section IV.E - A trend-following strategy is an investment approach that aims to profit from identifying and riding trends in the market. It involves analyzing price movements and identifying upward or downward trends. Trend followers typically enter positions in the direction of the prevailing trend and exit when the trend shows signs of reversing. This strategy assumes that trends persist and that by following them, investors can capture profits.
- F. Bandwidth: Section IV.F - In the context of Bollinger Bands, bandwidth refers to the width between the upper and lower bands. It provides a measure of volatility and can be used to assess the potential for price breakouts or reversals. A narrower bandwidth indicates lower volatility, while a wider bandwidth suggests higher volatility.
- G. High-frequency vs Low-frequency Trading: Section IV.G - High-frequency trading (HFT) and low-frequency trading (LFT) refer to different approaches to trading based on the frequency and speed of executing trades. HFT involves using sophisticated algorithms and high-speed technology to execute a large number of trades within very short timeframes, often measured in milliseconds. LFT, on the other hand, involves longer holding periods and fewer trades. Both approaches have their advantages and considerations, and the choice depends on the investor's strategy, resources, and risk tolerance.
- H. Market Price vs Intrinsic Value: Section IV.H - The market price of an asset is the current price at which it is being traded in the market. Intrinsic value, on the other hand, represents the underlying fundamental value of the asset, based on factors such as earnings, cash flows, and other relevant metrics. Investors analyze the relationship between market price and intrinsic value to identify potential discrepancies. Buying assets below their intrinsic value and selling them above it is a common objective for value investors.
- I. Trading Fee Impact: Section IV.I - Trading fees or transaction costs incurred when buying or selling assets can have an impact on investment returns. It is important to consider the impact of these fees when assessing the profitability of trades. High trading fees can erode potential gains or amplify losses. Investors often seek to minimize trading fees by choosing cost-effective brokers or employing strategies that reduce the frequency of trades.
- J. Scientific Method Statistics Included: Section IV.J - Applying the scientific method to investment and trading analysis involves using statistical techniques to test hypotheses, analyze data, and draw conclusions. By employing statistical methods such as regression analysis, hypothesis testing, and correlation analysis, investors can make data-driven decisions and gain insights into the relationships and patterns within financial markets.
- K. Population Selection: Section IV.K - Population selection refers to the process of choosing the group or population from which data will be collected and analyzed. It is important to select a population that is representative of the target market or investment universe. The population selection criteria may include factors such as geographic location, industry sector, market capitalization, or any other relevant characteristics. The goal of population selection is to ensure that the data collected and analyzed accurately reflects the broader market or specific segment being studied. This allows for more meaningful insights and conclusions to be drawn from the analysis.
- L. Mitigating & Recovery of Losses: Section IV.L - Mitigating and recovering losses is a crucial aspect of investment and trading strategies. In this section, we explore various approaches and techniques to minimize losses and potentially recover from them.
- 1. Averaging: Section IV.L.1 - Averaging, also known as dollar-cost averaging, is a technique where an investor consistently invests a fixed amount of money into an asset at regular intervals, regardless of its price. By doing so, the investor buys more shares when prices are low and fewer shares when prices are high. This strategy aims to reduce the impact of short-term price fluctuations and potentially lower the average cost of the investment over time.
- 2. Buyback: Section IV.L.2 - Buyback refers to the repurchase of outstanding shares by a company. From an investor's perspective, buying back shares can signal confidence from the company and potentially increase shareholder value. When a company repurchases its own shares, it reduces the total number of shares in circulation, which can lead to an increase in the value of the remaining shares.
- 3. Cash Reserves: Section IV.L.3 - Maintaining cash reserves is a risk management strategy that involves setting aside a portion of the portfolio in cash or highly liquid assets. Cash reserves provide flexibility and liquidity, allowing investors to take advantage of investment opportunities as they arise or to meet financial obligations. In times of market downturns or uncertainty, cash reserves can act as a cushion, mitigating potential losses.
- 4. Investing vs Trading: Section IV.L.4 - Investing and trading represent different approaches to participating in financial markets. Investing typically involves a longer-term perspective, focusing on the fundamental analysis of assets and seeking to generate returns over an extended period. Trading, on the other hand, involves shorter-term buying and selling of assets, often driven by technical analysis and market timing. Both approaches have their advantages and considerations, and investors may choose to incorporate elements of both in their strategies.
- 5. Writing Off: Section IV.L.5 - Writing off refers to the process of acknowledging and accepting losses by reducing the value of an investment or asset on the books. When an investment becomes significantly impaired or no longer holds the expected value, investors may choose to write off a portion or the entire investment. This accounting practice allows investors to reflect the true value of the investment and potentially offset the losses against taxable income.
- 6. Compounding Investment Strategy: Section IV.L.6 - Compounding is a strategy where investment returns are reinvested, allowing the investment to grow exponentially over time. By reinvesting returns, investors can earn returns on their initial investment as well as the accumulated returns. Compounding can lead to significant growth over long periods, taking advantage of the power of compounding returns.
- M. Trading & Investment Strategy Process: Section IV.M - Here, we will discuss the step-by-step process we follow when executing trades and investments. We will provide a detailed explanation of the strategy, including the tools and indicators we utilize to make informed decisions.
- 1. Process Legend: Section IV.M.1 - This subsection will serve as a legend or key to understanding the specific elements and components of our trading process. It will provide a comprehensive explanation of the terminology, variables, and concepts involved.
- a. Trigger Variables: Section IV.M.1.a - Within this subsection, we will focus on the key trigger variables that influence our trading decisions. These variables act as indicators for potential opportunities or risks in the market.
- i. 24 Hour Trade Volume: Section IV.M.1.a.i - Here, we will explore the significance of 24-hour trade volume as a trigger variable. We will discuss how changes in trade volume can provide insights into market activity and potential trends.
- ii. 24 Hour Price Percentage Change: Section IV.M.1.a.ii - This subsection will examine the importance of monitoring price percentage changes over a 24-hour period. We will discuss how significant price movements can indicate market volatility and potential trading opportunities.
- iii. Bollinger Bandwidth: Section IV.M.1.a.iii - Bollinger Bandwidth will be a focal point in this section. We will explain how this indicator is calculated and how it helps us assess market volatility and potential trend reversals.
- iv. Market Price Proximity to Bollinger Bands: Section IV.M.1.a.iv - Here, we will delve into the relationship between market price and the Bollinger Bands. We will discuss how the proximity of the market price to the bands can serve as a trigger for potential trading actions.
- v. Expense of Trading: Section IV.M.1.a.v - This subsection will address the expenses associated with trading and how they factor into our decision-making process. We will explore the impact of trading costs on our overall strategy and the importance of managing expenses effectively.
- b. Confounding Variables: Section IV.M.1.b - Explores the concept of confounding variables in trading and investment strategies. It discusses the external factors that may influence market behavior and potentially confound the relationship between trigger variables and trade outcomes. The identification and management of confounding variables are crucial for accurate analysis and decision-making.
- i. Market Sentiment: Section IV.M.1.b.i - Focuses on market sentiment as a confounding variable. It examines how investor emotions, perceptions, and overall market mood can impact trading decisions and market dynamics. The significance of understanding and incorporating market sentiment analysis into the trading strategy is discussed.
- ii. News-Events: Section IV.M.1.b.ii - Discusses the influence of news and events as confounding variables. It explores how major news announcements, economic indicators, corporate earnings, and geopolitical events can affect market behavior and introduce additional volatility and unpredictability. The considerations and strategies related to incorporating news and event analysis into the trading process are highlighted.
- iii. Market Volatility: Section IV.M.1.b.iii - Examines market volatility as a confounding variable. It delves into the measurement and analysis of market volatility using various indicators and tools. The impact of volatility on trade execution, risk management, and strategy performance is explored, along with techniques for adapting to changing market conditions.
- iv. Availability of Information: Section IV.M.1.b.iv - Focuses on the availability of information as a confounding variable. It discusses how the accessibility and timeliness of market data, research reports, and other information sources can influence decision-making and trade outcomes. The importance of reliable and up-to-date information in the trading process is emphasized.
- v. Trading Incentives: Section IV.M.1.b.v - Examines trading incentives as confounding variables. It explores how incentives such as rebates, promotions, and bonuses offered by brokers or trading platforms can impact trading decisions. The considerations and potential biases introduced by trading incentives are discussed, along with the importance of aligning incentives with long-term trading goals.
- vi. Type of Asset Traded: Section IV.M.1.b.vi - Discusses the type of asset traded as a confounding variable. It explores how different asset classes, such as stocks, bonds, commodities, or cryptocurrencies, can exhibit unique characteristics and behaviors. The considerations and strategies specific to each asset class are examined to account for their impact on trading outcomes.
- vii. Type of Broker: Section IV.M.1.b.vii - Focuses on the type of broker as a confounding variable. It examines the role of brokers in executing trades and the various types of brokers available, such as full-service brokers, discount brokers, or online brokers. The impact of broker services, fees, and trading platforms on the trading process is explored.
- viii. Trading Platform: Section IV.M.1.b.viii - Discusses the trading platform as a confounding variable. It explores the features, functionalities, and user experience of trading platforms used for executing trades. The impact of trading platform technology, order execution speed, and reliability on the trading process and outcomes is examined.
- ix. Geographic Location: Section IV.M.1.b.ix - Examines geographic location as a confounding variable. It explores how regional factors, such as time zone differences, market regulations, and economic conditions, can influence trading opportunities and outcomes. The considerations and strategies for adapting to geographic variations in the trading environment are discussed.
- x. Investor Experience: Section IV.M.1.b.x - Delves into the significance of investor experience as a confounding variable. It explores how an investor's level of knowledge, skill, and past trading experience can impact decision-making and trade outcomes. The importance of self-awareness, continuous learning, and adapting strategies based on one's experience is discussed. The section also highlights the potential biases and challenges that can arise from both novice and seasoned investors and provides insights on how to leverage experience to improve trading performance.
- c. Dependent & Independent Variables: Section IV.M.1.c - This section explores the dependent and independent variables used in the investment and trading strategy process. It focuses on identifying and analyzing the key factors that affect the performance and outcomes of the strategy.
- i. Asset Protocol: Section IV.M.1.c.i - The asset protocol, discussed in this section, outlines the guidelines and procedures for selecting and evaluating different types of assets within the investment and trading strategy. It helps determine which assets to include in the portfolio and how to assess their potential for generating returns.
- ii. Average Price Paid Protocol: Section IV.M.1.c.ii - The average price paid protocol, covered in this section, outlines the methodology used to calculate the average price at which assets are acquired within the investment and trading strategy. It helps determine the entry points for buying assets and provides insights into the cost basis of the portfolio.
- iii. Average Price Sold Protocol: Section IV.M.1.c.iii - The average price sold protocol, discussed in this section, outlines the methodology used to calculate the average price at which assets are sold within the investment and trading strategy. It helps determine the exit points for selling assets and provides insights into the realized gains or losses.
- iv. Frequency Protocol: Section IV.M.1.c.iv - The frequency protocol, covered in this section, defines the frequency at which trades are executed within the investment and trading strategy. It outlines the guidelines and considerations for determining how often assets are bought and sold, which can impact the overall portfolio performance.
- v. Buyback Protocol: Section IV.M.1.c.v - The buyback protocol, discussed in this section, outlines the guidelines and procedures for repurchasing assets that were previously sold within the investment and trading strategy. It helps determine the conditions under which assets can be reacquired, potentially allowing for capitalizing on favorable market conditions.
- vi. Sell-back Protocol: Section IV.M.1.c.vi - The sell-back protocol, covered in this section, outlines the guidelines and procedures for reselling assets that were previously bought within the investment and trading strategy. It helps determine the conditions under which assets can be resold, potentially allowing for capitalizing on profitable positions or mitigating losses.
- vii. Regressive Trend Protocol: Section IV.M.1.c.vii - The regressive trend protocol, discussed in this section, focuses on identifying and responding to regressive trends in the market within the investment and trading strategy. It outlines the guidelines and procedures for adjusting the portfolio based on the detection of downward trends to minimize potential losses.
- viii. Limit Protocol (LP): Section IV.M.1.c.viii - The limit protocol, referred to as LP, is described in this section. It outlines the guidelines and procedures for setting limit orders within the investment and trading strategy. It helps determine the maximum price (in the case of selling) or minimum price (in the case of buying) at which assets are traded, aiming to achieve more favorable execution prices.
- ix. Stop Limit Protocol (SLP): Section IV.M.1.c.ix - The stop limit protocol, referred to as SLP, is discussed in this section. It outlines the guidelines and procedures for setting stop limit orders within the investment and trading strategy. It helps determine the trigger price and the limit price, allowing for automated execution of trades when the market reaches specified levels, potentially protecting against significant losses.
- x. Trailing Stop Limit Protocol (TSLP): Section IV.M.1.c.x - The trailing stop limit protocol, referred to as TSLP, is explained in this section. It outlines the guidelines and procedures for setting trailing stop limit orders within the investment and trading strategy. It allows for adjusting the stop price based on a trailing percentage, aiming to protect profits and limit potential losses as the market price fluctuates.
- V. The United States Permanent Dividend Fund
- VI. Wealth & Taxes
Structure & Composition of the Executive Branch
To address issues facing the American republic, it is important to gather data on the structure and composition of the Executive Branch of the United States government. Understanding the departments and agencies that make up this branch and their areas of responsibility can provide critical insights into how this branch operates and its impact on American society. The Executive Branch is composed of a range of departments and agencies, including the Department of State, the Department of Defense, and the Department of Justice. To better understand the structure and composition of the Executive Branch, data should be gathered on the size, scope, and areas of responsibility of these departments and agencies, as well as the individuals who lead them. In addition, data should be gathered on the interactions between these departments and agencies, as well as the processes through which they develop and implement policies. This can help to identify areas where there may be inefficiencies or redundancies in the operations of the Executive Branch, and suggest strategies for streamlining and improving these processes. By gathering data on the structure and composition of the Executive Branch, it is possible to identify areas of concern and develop strategies for addressing them. This may include developing policies to improve collaboration and coordination between departments and agencies, increasing transparency and accountability in the operations of the Executive Branch, and identifying opportunities to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of this branch. Ultimately, by gathering data on the structure and composition of the Executive Branch, it is possible to promote a more effective and responsive government that better serves the American republic.
Recommended Citation: Section III.C.2₂:
Department of Agriculture (USDA)
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is a federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to agriculture, food, and rural development. The USDA was established in 1862 and its mission is to provide leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, and nutrition. The USDA's main responsibility is to ensure a safe and reliable food supply for Americans. This includes enforcing food safety regulations and conducting research to improve agricultural practices. The USDA also provides financial assistance to farmers and ranchers through programs like crop insurance and loans. In addition, the department promotes conservation of natural resources, such as soil and water, and manages public lands. The USDA is organized into various agencies and offices, including the Agricultural Marketing Service, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and the Food Safety and Inspection Service. Each agency has its own specific responsibilities, such as ensuring the humane treatment of animals, promoting the export of agricultural products, or conducting research on plant diseases. Overall, the USDA plays a critical role in the U.S. food and agricultural system, working to ensure that Americans have access to safe, healthy, and affordable food while promoting sustainable agricultural practices.
Recommended Citation: Section III.C.2.a₂:
Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the chief scientific research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Its mission is to conduct research to develop and transfer solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority, such as improving crop yields, enhancing food safety, and developing new products from agricultural commodities. ARS employs over 2,000 scientists and technicians who work in more than 90 research locations across the United States and abroad (ARS, n.d.). ARS plays a critical role in conducting research to support the sustainable production of food and fiber, as well as to ensure the availability and safety of the nation's water resources. Specifically, ARS scientists conduct research on a wide range of topics related to food and water, including crop production, food safety, and water quality and quantity, among other topics, to help ensure that the nation's food and water resources are produced and managed in a sustainable and environmentally responsible manner. One important area of research for ARS is crop improvement. ARS scientists have developed new plant varieties that are more resistant to pests and diseases, produce higher yields, and have improved nutritional content. For example, ARS researchers developed a new variety of rice that is resistant to multiple strains of rice blast, a fungal disease that can devastate rice crops. This new variety has the potential to increase rice yields and reduce the need for pesticide use (USDA, 2018).
Another key area of research for ARS is food safety. ARS scientists work to identify and mitigate food-borne pathogens and contaminants, such as Salmonella, Listeria, and E. coli. ARS has developed new detection methods for these pathogens, which have been adopted by the food industry and regulatory agencies. ARS researchers also work to develop new interventions to prevent or reduce contamination, such as new sanitizing agents and improved processing methods (ARS, n.d.). In addition, ARS researchers study the impacts of agricultural practices on water quality and quantity, and develop new management practices to help conserve water resources and protect water quality. This includes research on irrigation efficiency, nutrient management, and erosion control, as well as the development of new technologies for treating and recycling wastewater. In summary, the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is a critical agency within the USDA that conducts research to address pressing agricultural problems related to crop production, food safety, and water quality and quantity. ARS scientists work to develop new solutions and technologies that help to ensure the sustainability and productivity of the nation's agricultural sector.
The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) conducts research on various aspects of indoor agriculture, including lighting, growing media, pest management, and nutrient delivery systems. ARS scientists have developed new technologies and techniques for optimizing crop production in indoor environments, such as vertical farms and greenhouses, with a focus on improving productivity, sustainability, and profitability for growers. For example, ARS researchers have studied the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for indoor crop production, demonstrating that specific wavelengths of light can enhance plant growth and development while reducing energy costs. ARS scientists have also developed new growing media formulations that provide optimal root zone conditions for plant growth, as well as new methods for pest management that reduce the need for pesticides. Additionally, ARS researchers are exploring the use of hydroponic and aeroponic growing systems, which can improve water and nutrient use efficiency and reduce environmental impacts associated with conventional soil-based agriculture.
While the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) conducts research on indoor agriculture, there is no indication that they are specifically working on indoor agriculture for use in aerospace, such as on the planet Mars. However, NASA and other space agencies are conducting research on the use of indoor agriculture for space missions, as it has the potential to provide a sustainable source of food for astronauts during long-term space missions. NASA has experimented with various indoor agriculture systems, including hydroponic and aeroponic systems, to determine the most effective ways to grow food in space. Other space agencies and private companies are also exploring the use of indoor agriculture for space exploration and settlement. It is certainly possible for the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) to develop indoor agriculture for adaptation to off-world environments such as the Earth's moon. However, whether or not the ARS should prioritize this area of research depends on a variety of factors, including their current research priorities, available funding, and the feasibility of developing agriculture in off-world environments. If the Earth were to become less inhabitable due to environmental circumstances beyond our control, indoor agriculture could become an essential tool for ensuring food security for humanity.
The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is a division of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) that conducts research to develop and transfer solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority. One of the many areas of research that the ARS focuses on is preserving seeds, which could be valuable in the event of the Earth becoming inhabitable. The ARS operates the National Plant Germplasm System, which is a collection of seeds, plants, and other genetic resources that are maintained to support agricultural research, crop improvement, and conservation efforts. The system includes more than 600,000 samples of seeds from over 12,000 different species. In addition to maintaining this collection of seeds, the ARS conducts research on seed preservation and storage techniques. For example, they study the effects of different storage temperatures and conditions on seed viability, and develop methods to increase the longevity of stored seeds. If the Earth were to become inhabitable, the seeds stored in the National Plant Germplasm System could potentially be used to help restart agriculture and food production in a new location. However, it's important to note that preserving seeds is just one aspect of preparing for such an event. Other efforts would need to be undertaken to ensure that the necessary infrastructure and resources are available to support agriculture and food production in a new location.
The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the in-house research arm of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). ARS has been working on various research initiatives to develop indoor agriculture practices and technologies that can help increase crop yields, conserve water, and reduce the impact of agriculture on the environment. Here are some of the milestones achieved by ARS in the field of indoor agriculture:  LED Lighting: ARS has developed LED lighting systems that can simulate sunlight for indoor crops. These systems are energy-efficient and can help reduce the carbon footprint of indoor agriculture.  Vertical Farming: ARS has developed vertical farming technologies that can maximize the use of space in indoor environments. These systems can grow crops in stacked layers, thereby increasing the yield per unit of floor space.  Hydroponics: ARS has conducted research on hydroponic systems that can grow crops without soil. These systems use nutrient-rich water instead of soil to nourish the plants, resulting in higher crop yields and water conservation.  Aquaponics: ARS has also researched aquaponics, a system that combines hydroponics and fish farming. In this system, the waste produced by fish is used as a nutrient source for plants, which in turn filter the water for the fish.  Seed Development: ARS has developed new crop varieties that are specifically suited for indoor agriculture. These crops have been bred for traits such as fast growth, high yield, and resistance to pests and diseases.  Robotics: ARS has also explored the use of robotics in indoor agriculture. Robots can be used for tasks such as seeding, watering, and harvesting, thereby reducing labor costs and increasing efficiency. Overall, the research conducted by ARS has helped advance the field of indoor agriculture, making it a more sustainable and efficient practice.
ARS conducts research on a wide range of crops for indoor agriculture, and the specific crops they demonstrate may vary depending on the location and research focus. Here are some examples of crops that ARS has demonstrated in their indoor agriculture demo systems:  Leafy greens: ARS has demonstrated the production of various types of lettuce, spinach, and other leafy greens using hydroponic and vertical farming systems.  Tomatoes: ARS has developed indoor agriculture systems for growing high-yielding and disease-resistant tomato plants using hydroponics and LED lighting.  Herbs: ARS has demonstrated the production of herbs such as basil, cilantro, and parsley in indoor agriculture systems, which can provide a year-round supply of fresh herbs.  Strawberries: ARS has developed indoor agriculture systems for growing strawberries using hydroponics and LED lighting, which can increase the yield and quality of the fruit.  Microgreens: ARS has demonstrated the production of microgreens, which are nutrient-rich and flavorful young plants that can be grown indoors using hydroponic systems.  Mushrooms: ARS has developed indoor agriculture systems for growing various types of mushrooms, such as shiitake and oyster mushrooms, which can be grown using controlled environmental conditions and substrates. These are just a few examples of the crops that ARS has demonstrated in their indoor agriculture demo systems. ARS continues to research and develop technologies to optimize the growth and yield of a wide range of crops in indoor agriculture systems.
Recommended Citation: Section III.C.2.a.i₂:
Bureau of the Fiscal Service (BFS)
The Bureau of the Fiscal Service (BFS) is a federal agency within the United States Department of the Treasury, responsible for managing the financial operations of the federal government . It was established in 2012 by merging the Financial Management Service and the Bureau of the Public Debt, along with other offices. The BFS's main objective is to uphold the financial integrity and operational efficiency of the federal government through its centralized financial management and debt collection services. The bureau manages several financial functions, including disbursing payments to federal agencies, collecting debts owed to the government, managing federal financial data, and issuing and redeeming government securities. The BFS provides various services to the public, such as facilitating the sale of savings bonds, processing tax payments, and sharing information about government financial programs. The BFS plays a vital role in ensuring the effective and efficient management of the federal government's finances and providing essential financial services to the public.
Reference  refers to the "Monthly Treasury Statement" (MTS), which is a comprehensive report published by the Bureau of the Fiscal Service (BFS) on a monthly basis. The report provides detailed information on the federal government's cash and debt operations, including data on both expenses and revenues broken down by agency, program, and type of transaction. The MTS includes information on the government's tax collections, borrowing activities, and programmatic spending. It also provides a detailed breakdown of the government's cash position, debt holdings, and other financial metrics. The report is considered a key resource for analysts and policymakers who are interested in monitoring the government's financial operations, and it is regularly updated to reflect the most recent data. The MTS is available on the BFS website and includes data from the current fiscal year as well as archived reports from previous months. The report is organized into several sections, including receipts and outlays by major category, on-budget and off-budget transactions, and details on the government's borrowing activities. The report also includes data on the government's net operating cost, which is the difference between the government's total expenses and its total revenues.Overall, the Monthly Treasury Statement provides a wealth of information on the federal government's financial operations and is an important resource for anyone interested in monitoring the government's revenue and expenses. The report is updated regularly and is easily accessible on the BFS website.
Reference  is the "Annual Report of the Bureau of the Fiscal Service" published by the Bureau of the Fiscal Service (BFS). The report provides an overview of the BFS's operations and financial results for the fiscal year. The report includes a section on the agency's operating expenses, which covers expenses related to personnel, rent, equipment, supplies, and other administrative costs. The operating expenses section of the report provides a detailed breakdown of the agency's expenses and how they compare to previous years. It also includes information on the agency's efforts to control costs and improve efficiency. The report highlights the BFS's efforts to reduce operating expenses through initiatives such as automation and process improvements. The report also covers other financial aspects of the BFS's operations, including information on its revenue, debt holdings, and other key metrics. It provides a comprehensive view of the BFS's financial performance for the fiscal year, as well as any challenges or risks related to its financial operations. Overall, the "Annual Report of the Bureau of the Fiscal Service" is a valuable resource for anyone interested in understanding the BFS's financial operations and performance. The report is updated annually and is available on the BFS website. It provides a detailed breakdown of the agency's operating expenses, as well as other important financial metrics, and highlights the agency's efforts to control costs and improve efficiency.
References  and  provide different types of information on the operating costs of the Bureau of the Fiscal Service (BFS). Reference , the "Monthly Treasury Statement", provides monthly updates on the BFS's operating costs. According to the report, the BFS had operating expenses of approximately $99 million in September 2021, which was an increase of about $1 million compared to the previous month. This increase was largely due to higher personnel costs. The report also provides a breakdown of the BFS's operating expenses by category, including personnel, rent, equipment, and other administrative costs. Reference , the "Annual Report of the Bureau of the Fiscal Service", provides a more detailed overview of the BFS's operating costs for the fiscal year. According to the report, the BFS had operating expenses of $1.1 billion in fiscal year 2020, which was an increase of approximately $74 million compared to the previous year. The report provides a detailed breakdown of the BFS's operating expenses by category, including personnel costs of $712 million, rent costs of $69 million, equipment costs of $51 million, and other administrative costs of $263 million. Both references highlight the importance of controlling costs and improving efficiency in the BFS's operations. Reference  notes that the agency has implemented a number of cost-saving initiatives in recent years, including automation and process improvements, to reduce operating expenses. The monthly updates provided in reference  can help identify areas where operating costs are increasing or decreasing, allowing for targeted efforts to control costs. Overall, these references provide valuable information on the operating costs of the BFS and highlight the agency's efforts to manage these costs.
The Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Trust Fund is a crucial component of the Social Security Trust Fund in the United States, responsible for disbursing retirement, survivor, and disability benefits to eligible individuals and their families. The trust fund receives funding primarily from payroll taxes levied on employees, employers, and self-employed individuals, which accounted for 89.2% of its income in 2020 . Additionally, a portion of the income taxes on Social Security benefits goes towards the trust fund. The collected funds are utilized to pay current beneficiaries and build reserves for future beneficiaries. As of 2021, the OASI Trust Fund has accumulated around $2.9 trillion in assets, which are invested in various securities, including US Treasury bonds. However, it is projected to become insolvent by 2033, and will only be able to pay around 76% of the scheduled benefits . Policymakers have suggested multiple reforms to ensure the long-term viability of the OASI Trust Fund and the Social Security system. These include raising the retirement age, increasing payroll taxes, or decreasing benefits for high-income earners. Nonetheless, there is significant disagreement about the feasibility and effectiveness of these proposals, and they have yet to be implemented. Note: The Social Security Administration's annual report of the Board of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Federal Disability Insurance Trust Funds provides an overview of the financial status of the Social Security system, including the OASI Trust Fund. According to the report, payroll taxes are the primary source of income for the OASI Trust Fund, accounting for over 89% of its income in 2020.
Reference , the "Social Security Administration Fiscal Year 2021 Budget Request" report, provides a breakdown of the investment revenue for the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) program. According to the report, the OASI program's investment revenue is projected to be $92.9 billion for fiscal year 2021. This revenue is generated through the investment of the OASI Trust Fund's assets in special-issue Treasury bonds. The report further explains that the investment revenue is a key source of funding for the OASI program, along with payroll taxes paid by workers and employers. The investment income helps to ensure that the OASI Trust Fund has sufficient resources to pay benefits to current and future beneficiaries. Overall, the breakdown of the investment revenue for the OASI program provided in reference  demonstrates the importance of the program's financial operations to the overall financial health of the Social Security system.
The Disability Insurance (DI) Trust Fund is a significant component of the Social Security Trust Fund in the United States. As of 2021, the DI Trust Fund holds approximately $240 billion in assets, which are invested in a variety of securities, including US Treasury bonds. These assets are primarily funded by payroll taxes collected from employees, employers, and self-employed individuals, as well as income taxes on Social Security benefits and interest on its investments. The DI Trust Fund provides critical financial support to individuals who are unable to work due to a disability and have earned enough Social Security credits to qualify for benefits. In the event of disability, beneficiaries can receive monthly payments based on their average lifetime earnings. The fund is projected to remain solvent until 2057, after which it is projected to be able to pay approximately 91% of scheduled benefits. However, to ensure its long-term sustainability, policymakers have proposed several reforms, including increasing payroll taxes, reducing benefits for high earners, or implementing stricter eligibility requirements. Overall, the DI Trust Fund's role in providing economic security to individuals with disabilities cannot be overstated. It is essential that policymakers take necessary measures to ensure the fund's long-term financial stability, considering its current value and projected payouts.
The annual Trustees Report of the Board of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Federal Disability Insurance Trust Funds provides detailed information on the administrative expenses incurred by the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Trust Fund in the United States. The report states that the OASI Trust Fund pays for its own expenses, which include processing benefit claims and managing the trust fund's financial operations, using a portion of the payroll taxes and income taxes it collects . The report further reveals that these administrative expenses make up a significant portion of the overall operating costs of the Social Security Administration. While the exact amount of these expenses may vary from year to year, the Trustees Report provides a comprehensive breakdown of the trust fund's expenses, revenue, and assets, allowing policymakers and the public to understand the financial health of the Social Security system. See Social Security Adminstration (SSA) for a summary of expenses.
The Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Fund is a government-managed trust fund in the United States that provides financial support for the Medicare program's hospital insurance coverage. The HI Trust Fund is one of two trust funds under the Medicare program, the other being the Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Trust Fund. The HI Trust Fund is funded primarily by payroll taxes paid by employees, employers, and self-employed individuals. These taxes are deposited into the trust fund and used to pay for hospital insurance benefits for Medicare beneficiaries. The HI Trust Fund is projected to face financial challenges in the coming years due to the aging of the population and rising healthcare costs. To address these challenges, various policy proposals have been made, including increasing the payroll tax rate, reducing benefits, and implementing cost-saving measures. The HI Trust Fund is overseen by the Medicare Board of Trustees, which is responsible for ensuring that the fund remains solvent and financially sustainable. The Trustees issue an annual report on the financial status of the HI and SMI Trust Funds, which provides projections and recommendations for ensuring the long-term sustainability of the Medicare program.
The Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Trust Fund is a government-managed trust fund in the United States that provides financial support for the Medicare program's outpatient and physician services coverage. The SMI Trust Fund is one of two trust funds under the Medicare program, the other being the Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Fund. The SMI Trust Fund is funded by premiums paid by Medicare beneficiaries for Part B coverage, which includes outpatient services such as doctor visits, diagnostic tests, and preventive care. In addition, the SMI Trust Fund also receives funding from the general revenue of the federal government. The SMI Trust Fund faces financial challenges due to rising healthcare costs and an increasing number of beneficiaries. To address these challenges, various policy proposals have been made, including increasing premiums, reducing payments to providers, and implementing cost-saving measures. The SMI Trust Fund is overseen by the Medicare Board of Trustees, which is responsible for ensuring that the fund remains solvent and financially sustainable. The Trustees issue an annual report on the financial status of the SMI and HI Trust Funds, which provides projections and recommendations for ensuring the long-term sustainability of the Medicare program.
Recommended Citation: Section III.C.2.c.iii₂:
Department of Health & Human Services
The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is a United States government agency responsible for promoting and protecting the health and well-being of Americans. The HHS was established in 1953 and is one of the largest federal departments, with a budget of over $1 trillion. The HHS has a broad mandate, encompassing a wide range of programs and services related to healthcare, public health, and social services. The department is responsible for administering several key healthcare programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, which provide health coverage to millions of Americans. The HHS also oversees the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which expanded access to healthcare coverage for millions of uninsured Americans. The HHS is also responsible for protecting public health and responding to health emergencies. The department's agencies, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), conduct research and provide guidance on a wide range of health issues, including infectious diseases, chronic diseases, and mental health. The HHS also plays a critical role in responding to public health emergencies, such as pandemics, natural disasters, and bioterrorism threats. In addition, the HHS administers a variety of social service programs, such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Head Start, and the Child Welfare Program, which provide support to vulnerable populations, including children, families, and the elderly. Overall, the Department of Health and Human Services plays a vital role in promoting the health and well-being of Americans through its various programs and services.
Recommended Citation: Section III.C.2.b₂:
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is a federal agency of the United States government that was created to protect human health and the environment . The EPA was established by an executive order signed by President Richard Nixon in 1970 , with the mission of enforcing environmental laws, regulations, and policies to safeguard public health and the environment . The agency's activities include setting national environmental standards, monitoring and enforcing compliance with these standards, and conducting research and development to support environmental protection efforts . The EPA falls under the jurisdiction of the executive branch of the U.S. government, which includes the President, Vice President, and the Cabinet . The agency is led by an Administrator who is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate . The EPA works closely with other federal agencies, state and local governments, industry, and the public to address environmental issues . The EPA's activities have been instrumental in improving the quality of the environment in the United States, including improving air and water quality, reducing toxic emissions, and protecting endangered species . The agency has also been involved in international efforts to address environmental issues, such as the Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer and the Paris Agreement on climate change .
Recommended Citation: Section III.C.2.g₂:
Social Security Administration (SSA)
The Social Security Administration (SSA) is a crucial agency within the executive branch of the U.S. government. Established in 1935, the SSA is responsible for managing various Social Security programs that offer financial assistance to eligible individuals and their families. The agency is committed to promoting social welfare and economic security by providing benefits to retired workers, disabled workers, survivors of deceased workers, and individuals with limited income and resources. In this article, we will provide an overview of the SSA's responsibilities, including the management of Social Security and Medicare programs, and its role in promoting the well-being of individuals and families across the United States.
The Social Security Administration (SSA) is an independent agency within the executive branch of the United States government. It was established in 1935 under President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal legislation to administer Social Security programs that provide financial assistance to eligible individuals and their families. The agency is responsible for managing several programs, including Social Security retirement benefits, which provide income to retired workers and their dependents, as well as disabled workers and their dependents. The Social Security disability benefits program provides income to workers who have become disabled and are unable to work, as well as to their dependents. The Social Security survivor benefits program provides income to the survivors of deceased workers, including their children, spouses, and dependent parents. The SSA also administers the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, which offers financial assistance to disabled and elderly individuals with limited income and resources. As part of its responsibilities, the agency determines eligibility for these programs, calculates benefits, and makes payments to eligible beneficiaries. Additionally, the SSA maintains records of earnings and contributions for individuals who pay into the Social Security system. Overall, the SSA plays a critical role in providing financial assistance to eligible individuals and their families, promoting social welfare and economic security across the United States.
Social Security is accounted for through a system of trust funds. These trust funds are managed by the Department of the Treasury and consist of two separate accounts: the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Trust Fund, which provides retirement and survivor benefits, and the Disability Insurance (DI) Trust Fund, which provides disability benefits. When workers pay Social Security taxes on their earnings, the money is deposited into these trust funds. The funds are then used to pay benefits to eligible individuals, as well as to cover administrative costs. Any excess funds are invested in interest-bearing securities, which generates additional income for the trust funds.The Social Security trustees regularly project the financial status of the trust funds over the next 75 years, taking into account factors such as demographic trends, economic growth, and changes to the Social Security program. Based on these projections, the trustees determine whether the trust funds are expected to remain solvent or whether changes need to be made to the program to ensure its long-term sustainability. Overall, Social Security is accounted for through a system of trust funds that receives contributions from workers and pays out benefits to eligible individuals. The trustees monitor the financial status of the trust funds and make recommendations for changes to the program as needed to ensure its long-term sustainability.
The Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Fund and the Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Trust Fund are two important funds that are used to finance the Medicare program. These funds are managed by the Social Security Administration (SSA), which plays a critical role in ensuring that Medicare beneficiaries receive the health care services they need. The HI Trust Fund is primarily funded by payroll taxes on current workers and their employers. This fund pays for inpatient hospital care, skilled nursing facilities, hospice care, and some home health care. The SSA is responsible for ensuring that the HI Trust Fund is properly managed and that it has enough funds to pay for the health care services provided to Medicare beneficiaries. The SMI Trust Fund, on the other hand, is primarily funded by general tax revenues and monthly premiums paid by beneficiaries. This fund pays for outpatient services, such as doctor visits, preventive services, and medical equipment. The SSA is also responsible for overseeing the SMI Trust Fund and ensuring that it has enough funds to pay for the health care services provided to Medicare beneficiaries. The SSA plays an important role in ensuring that both the HI and SMI Trust Funds are managed effectively and efficiently. The agency is responsible for monitoring the financial health of both funds, projecting future costs, and making recommendations for funding levels. The SSA also works with other federal agencies to ensure that Medicare beneficiaries have access to high-quality health care services. In summary, the Hospital Insurance (HI) Trust Fund and the Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Trust Fund are critical components of the Medicare program. The Social Security Administration plays a key role in managing these funds and ensuring that they have enough resources to pay for the health care services provided to Medicare beneficiaries.
While the Social Security Administration (SSA) primarily focuses on administering Social Security benefits, the agency also plays an important role in the Medicaid program. Medicaid is a joint federal-state program that provides health care coverage to low-income individuals and families, as well as people with disabilities. One of the SSA's key responsibilities with respect to Medicaid is determining eligibility for the program. The agency works with state Medicaid agencies to determine if individuals meet the eligibility criteria, which can vary depending on the state. The SSA also plays a role in verifying income and other eligibility requirements, such as citizenship and residency status. In addition to determining eligibility, the SSA is also responsible for the administration of certain Medicaid-related programs. For example, the agency oversees the administration of the Medicare Savings Programs, which help eligible individuals pay for Medicare premiums and other out-of-pocket costs. The SSA also works with state agencies to ensure that Medicaid beneficiaries receive the Social Security benefits they are entitled to. The SSA's role in Medicaid underscores the agency's commitment to ensuring that vulnerable individuals and families have access to health care coverage and other vital services. The agency works closely with federal and state partners to administer the program efficiently and effectively, and to ensure that Medicaid beneficiaries receive the care and support they need to live healthy and productive lives.
In conclusion, the Social Security Administration (SSA) plays a vital role in administering programs that provide financial assistance to eligible individuals and families. The agency's management of the Social Security and Medicare programs is crucial to promoting social welfare and economic security across the United States. Through its work, the SSA ensures that millions of Americans receive the benefits they need to lead healthy and productive lives. The agency's commitment to its mission is unwavering, and its impact on the lives of individuals and families is immeasurable. As we look to the future, we can be confident that the SSA will continue to fulfill its responsibilities with the utmost dedication and professionalism.
Reference  is a report titled "Social Security Administration Fiscal Year 2021 Budget Request" submitted to the Congress by the Social Security Administration (SSA). The report provides detailed information on the SSA's budget request for the fiscal year 2021, including the agency's total annual expenses. According to the report, the SSA's total annual expenses for fiscal year 2021 are projected to be $1.06 trillion. This includes both programmatic and administrative expenses, such as salaries, benefits, rent, and other operating costs. Of the total expenses, administrative expenses account for approximately $10.2 billion, or less than 1% of the total. The report further breaks down the administrative expenses by major components, including management and support services, information technology, and program integrity activities. The largest component is management and support services, which accounts for over half of the total administrative expenses. Overall, reference  provides a comprehensive overview of the SSA's expenses, including detailed information on the agency's administrative expenses. The report is a valuable resource for policymakers and stakeholders who are interested in understanding the financial operations of the SSA.
Recommended Citation: Section III.C.2.f₂:
Algorithmic Stable Coins & Tokens
Algorithmic stable coins are a new type of cryptocurrency that uses algorithms to maintain stability in their value. They are different from traditional cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, which are known for their high volatility. The main goal of algorithmic stable coins is to provide a stable and predictable value that can be useful for payments and transactions. While stability doesn't necessarily mean pegging an asset to the US dollar, a Twitter Coin or Twiter Blue Token could be pegged to the value of the company and/or subscribers, for example.
Cardano founder Charles Hoskinson is a strong advocate for algorithmic stable coins, believing they are the future of cryptocurrency due to their ability to provide a stable store of value and a reliable medium of exchange. Algorithmic stable coins can help to reduce the volatility of the cryptocurrency market and make it more accessible to a wider range of users. However, there are challenges and risks associated with maintaining stability in the value of a cryptocurrency. There is always the risk of algorithmic failure or manipulation, and regulatory challenges may need to be addressed before algorithmic stable coins can become widely adopted. Despite the challenges and risks, there are pioneers in the industry who might be willing to take the risk and innovate. For example, Elon Musk and the creators of Twitter could be in a unique position to pioneer the innovation of stable coins that are pegged to their company and/or subscribers. These algorithmic stable coins could be useful for payments and transactions, and the concept could provide a new way to think about the value of companies and the value of their subscribers. The future of algorithmic stable coins is exciting, but it remains to be seen if it will come to fruition.
Algorithmic stable-coins are a promising new development in the cryptocurrency space that can potentially disrupt the traditional banking industry. These stable-coins use algorithms to maintain a stable value, making them a reliable medium of exchange and store of value. As more people adopt stable-coins as a means of payment and store of value, they may no longer need to use traditional bank accounts, leading to a decline in banking revenue. However, there are challenges associated with maintaining stability in the value of a cryptocurrency, such as algorithmic failure or manipulation, and regulatory challenges that must be addressed before algorithmic stable-coins can become widely adopted.
Despite these challenges, the impact of algorithmic stable-coins on banking could be significant. Banks may need to adapt and innovate to remain competitive. One way banks could compete is by offering stable-coin services, creating their own stable-coins or partnering with existing stable-coin issuers to offer fast, low-cost, and secure transactions. Banks could also invest in digital banking services, offering greater convenience and flexibility for their customers, such as mobile banking apps, online account management, and personalized financial advice. Additionally, banks could lower fees for services such as money transfers and account maintenance, and integrate with stable-coin networks to offer their customers more options for storing and transferring value. Finally, banks could emphasize security, leveraging their existing expertise in cyber-security and financial risk management to offer customers the highest levels of security for their digital assets.
As more companies launch their own algorithmic stable-coins, they could compete directly with banks for customers, leading to increased competition. This competition is likely to create a more innovative and customer-focused banking industry. Banks that are able to adapt and offer new services will be well-positioned to compete in this rapidly changing landscape. Overall, the future of algorithmic stable-coins in banking is exciting, and could revolutionize the way we think about storing and transferring value.
In conclusion, algorithmic stable coins have the potential to become the future of cryptocurrency. They can provide a stable store of value and a reliable medium of exchange that can make the cryptocurrency market more accessible to a wider range of users. Despite the challenges and risks associated with maintaining stability in the value of a cryptocurrency, pioneers in the industry such as Elon Musk and the creators of Twitter could be in a unique position to innovate and lead the way. While it remains to be seen if algorithmic stable coins will become widely adopted, the future of this new technology is exciting and could revolutionize the way we think about the value of assets.
Recommended Citation: Section III.C.2.e.iii₂:
Powers & Responsibilities of the Executive Branch
To effectively address issues facing the American republic, it is important to gather data on the powers and responsibilities of the Executive Branch of the United States government. Understanding the scope and limitations of the authority of the Executive Branch can provide critical insights into how this branch of government operates and its impact on American society. The Executive Branch is responsible for enforcing federal laws, overseeing the operations of federal agencies, and serving as the commander-in-chief of the military. To better understand the powers and responsibilities of the Executive Branch, data should be gathered on the authority of the President to make appointments, negotiate treaties, and take executive actions to implement policy. In addition, data should be gathered on the interactions between the Executive Branch and other branches of government, particularly the Legislative Branch, which has the authority to pass laws and appropriate funds. This can help to identify areas of potential conflict or overlap in the operations of the Executive Branch, and suggest strategies for improving coordination and collaboration between these branches. By gathering data on the powers and responsibilities of the Executive Branch, it is possible to identify areas of concern and develop strategies for addressing them. This may include developing policies to increase transparency and accountability in the operations of the Executive Branch, promoting greater collaboration and communication between the Executive and Legislative branches, and engaging with the public to better understand their needs and priorities. Ultimately, by gathering data on the powers and responsibilities of the Executive Branch, it is possible to promote a more effective and responsive government that better serves the American republic.
Recommended Citation: Section III.C.3₂:
The Judicial Branch is one of the three branches of the United States government, along with the Executive and Legislative branches. Its primary function is to interpret the laws of the land and ensure that they are upheld in a fair and impartial manner. The Judicial Branch is made up of federal and state courts, including the Supreme Court of the United States, which is the highest court in the land. The justices of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The Judicial Branch plays a critical role in the American republic by providing a system of checks and balances that prevents any one branch of government from becoming too powerful. It also ensures that individual rights and freedoms are protected, and that the rule of law is upheld. The Supreme Court has the power to declare laws unconstitutional, which serves as a powerful check on the legislative branch. Additionally, the Judicial Branch has the responsibility of interpreting the Constitution and ensuring that government actions are in line with its provisions. In recent years, the role of the Judicial Branch has been a subject of much debate and controversy. Some have argued that the Supreme Court has become too politicized, with justices making decisions based on their personal beliefs rather than the law. Others have criticized the appointment process, which they believe has become overly politicized and lacks transparency. These issues will need to be carefully considered as the American republic seeks to ensure that the Judicial Branch remains an effective and impartial guardian of justice and individual rights.
Recommended Citation: Section III.D₂:
Definition & Role of the Judicial Branch
The Judicial Branch is one of the three branches of the United States government, responsible for interpreting the laws and ensuring their proper application. This branch is comprised of federal and state courts, with the Supreme Court serving as the highest court in the country. The judges and justices of these courts are appointed through a process that involves the President and Senate confirmation. The role of the Judicial Branch in the American republic is crucial to the maintenance of the republic and a just society. It acts as a system of checks and balances on the other two branches, the Executive and Legislative, to ensure that their actions are in compliance with the Constitution and other laws. This branch also has the power to declare laws unconstitutional, which further strengthens its role as a check on the other branches of government. Despite the importance of the Judicial Branch, there are some concerns that need to be addressed. One such issue is the potential politicization of the courts, which can lead to decisions that are based more on personal or ideological beliefs than on the law. Another issue is the appointment process for judges and justices, which some argue can be influenced by political considerations rather than merit. To ensure that the Judicial Branch remains an impartial and effective part of the American republic, it is important to carefully consider these issues and develop strategies to address them. This will help to maintain the rule of law and protect individual rights and freedoms.
Recommended Citation: Section III.D.1₂:
Structure & Composition of the Judicial Branch
The Judicial Branch is one of the three branches of the United States government, responsible for interpreting and upholding the law. This branch is composed of federal and state courts, with the Supreme Court being the highest court in the country. The structure and composition of the Judicial Branch are critical to its functioning and effectiveness. At the federal level, the Judicial Branch consists of the Supreme Court, 13 Courts of Appeals, and 94 District Courts. Each court has a chief judge and several associate judges, who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The Supreme Court is made up of nine justices, who are appointed for life and have the final say on constitutional and legal issues. In addition to the federal courts, each state has its own court system. State courts are responsible for interpreting and enforcing state laws and regulations, as well as handling cases that fall under their jurisdiction. While the structure of the Judicial Branch is well-established, there are ongoing discussions about its composition. Some argue that the Supreme Court should have more than nine justices to ensure a diversity of viewpoints and to keep up with the demands of the modern era. Others have called for changes to the appointment process, such as term limits for justices or a greater role for the legislative branch. To maintain an effective and impartial Judicial Branch, it is important to continue examining its structure and composition, and to implement changes as necessary to ensure that it remains a fair and impartial interpreter of the law in the American republic.wn text. Put in some really good content about your services or products, or whatever you like.
Recommended Citation: Section III.D.2₂:
Powers & Responsibilities of the Judicial Branch
The Judicial Branch is responsible for interpreting and enforcing the law in the United States, and it is endowed with a number of important powers and responsibilities. The Supreme Court, the highest court in the land, has the power to review lower court decisions and to make decisions on cases that have significant implications for the country as a whole. One of the most significant powers of the Judicial Branch is the ability to declare laws unconstitutional. This power is critical to ensuring that the government does not overstep its bounds and that individual rights are protected. The Judicial Branch is also responsible for interpreting the Constitution and other laws, which helps to guide the actions of the other branches of government. In addition to these powers, the Judicial Branch has the responsibility of ensuring that the law is applied fairly and impartially. This means that judges and justices must set aside their personal beliefs and biases in order to make decisions based solely on the law and the facts of the case.There are ongoing debates about the scope and limits of the powers and responsibilities of the Judicial Branch. Some argue that the Supreme Court has become too powerful and that its decisions can have a significant impact on the political landscape of the country. Others suggest that the Judicial Branch should play a more active role in interpreting and enforcing certain laws and regulations.To ensure that the powers and responsibilities of the Judicial Branch are properly balanced, it is important to continue examining its role in the American republic and to make changes as needed to ensure that it remains an impartial and effective interpreter of the law.
Recommended Citation: Section III.D.3₂:
State and local governments are an essential component of the American republic, as they provide critical services and support to communities throughout the country. State governments are responsible for passing laws and regulations that affect their citizens, while local governments are responsible for implementing and enforcing these laws at the community level. State governments are typically composed of three branches, similar to the federal government: the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The legislative branch is responsible for passing laws, the executive branch is responsible for enforcing laws, and the judicial branch is responsible for interpreting and upholding the law. Each state also has its own constitution, which outlines the basic framework of its government and establishes certain rights and protections for its citizens. Local governments, on the other hand, are typically composed of a mayor or city council and various departments and agencies that provide services to the community. These services can include police and fire protection, waste management, education, and transportation, among others.One of the challenges facing state and local governments is ensuring that they have adequate resources to provide these services effectively. This can include securing funding from the federal government, as well as managing budgets and ensuring that resources are being used efficiently and effectively. Overall, state and local governments play a vital role in ensuring the well-being of communities throughout the American republic. It is important to continue examining their structure and effectiveness to ensure that they are able to meet the evolving needs of their citizens.
Recommended Citation: Section III.E₂:
Definition & Role of State & Local Governments
The definition and role of state and local governments are important topics to understand for solving problems on behalf of the American republic. State governments are responsible for governing their respective states and providing public services such as education, healthcare, and transportation. They are also responsible for managing state budgets, creating and enforcing laws, and representing their state in national politics. Local governments, on the other hand, are responsible for governing a specific locality such as a city, county, or town. Their responsibilities include providing public safety services such as police and fire protection, maintaining local infrastructure such as roads and public parks, and managing local budgets. Both state and local governments play a critical role in the functioning of the American republic. They work together with the federal government to provide essential services to citizens and to ensure that the country operates smoothly. The importance of state and local governments has become increasingly evident during the COVID-19 pandemic, as they have played a crucial role in distributing vaccines, implementing public health guidelines, and managing local economies. To effectively solve problems on behalf of the American republic, it is essential to understand the unique roles and responsibilities of state and local governments, and to work collaboratively with them to achieve shared goals. By gathering data on the challenges facing state and local governments, policymakers can develop targeted policies and programs that address the specific needs of these important institutions and the communities they serve.
Recommended Citation: Section III.E.1₂:
Relationship between State & Local Governments & the Federal Government
Understanding the relationship between state and local governments and the federal government is crucial for solving problems on behalf of the American republic. The United States operates under a system of federalism, where power is divided between the federal government and state governments. This means that the federal government has certain powers that are delegated to it by the Constitution, while the states retain all other powers. State and local governments have a degree of autonomy from the federal government, which allows them to address the unique needs and priorities of their communities. However, they are also required to comply with federal laws and regulations and receive funding from the federal government to support important programs and services. The relationship between state and local governments and the federal government can be complex and at times contentious, particularly when it comes to issues such as immigration, healthcare, and environmental regulation. States and localities may push back against federal policies that they perceive as overreaching or infringing on their authority, while the federal government may seek to exert greater control over state and local affairs in certain areas. To effectively solve problems on behalf of the American republic, it is important to understand the dynamics of the relationship between state and local governments and the federal government. By gathering data on issues related to federalism and intergovernmental relations, policymakers can develop strategies and policies that support effective collaboration and decision-making across all levels of government, and ultimately better serve the needs of American citizens.
Recommended Citation: Section III.E.2₂:
Powers & Responsibilities of State & Local Governments
Understanding the powers and responsibilities of state and local governments is crucial for solving problems on behalf of the American republic. State governments have a range of powers and responsibilities, including the ability to regulate commerce within their borders, establish and maintain a system of public education, and oversee the administration of justice. Local governments, such as counties and municipalities, have more limited powers but are responsible for providing essential services to their communities, such as police and fire protection, public transportation, and waste management. They are also responsible for maintaining local infrastructure and zoning and land use regulation. One of the key challenges facing state and local governments is balancing their powers and responsibilities with the need to provide adequate funding for essential services. This is particularly challenging for smaller municipalities and rural areas, which may struggle to attract businesses and generate revenue. To effectively solve problems on behalf of the American republic, it is important to gather data on the specific challenges facing state and local governments, including issues related to funding, infrastructure, and service provision. This data can be used to develop targeted policies and programs that address the unique needs of different communities and support the effective functioning of state and local governments. Ultimately, this will help to ensure that all Americans have access to the services and resources they need to thrive.
Recommended Citation: Section III.E.3₂:
The Constitution of the United States is a critical document that lays out the foundational principles that govern the nation. The Constitution is divided into three main parts: the Preamble, the Articles, and the Amendments. The Preamble outlines the general purposes of the Constitution, including establishing justice, promoting the general welfare, and securing the blessings of liberty for all Americans. The Articles of the Constitution lay out the structure of the federal government and describe the powers and responsibilities of each branch. The first article establishes the legislative branch, the second article establishes the executive branch, and the third article establishes the judicial branch. The Articles also outline the relationship between the federal government and the individual states. The Amendments to the Constitution were added over time and are designed to address specific issues or to expand upon the principles established in the original document. The first ten amendments, known as the Bill of Rights, protect fundamental rights such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press. Overall, the Constitutional principles of the United States are designed to establish a framework of government that protects individual rights while also promoting the common good. Any specific problems or solutions that arise must be addressed in accordance with these Constitutional principles.
Recommended Citation: Section III.F₂:
The separation of powers is a fundamental principle of the United States government. This principle is based on the idea that the power of the federal government should be divided among different branches to prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful and potentially abusing its authority. The three branches of government are the legislative branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch. The legislative branch, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, is responsible for making laws. The executive branch, led by the President, is responsible for enforcing laws. The judicial branch, made up of the Supreme Court and other federal courts, is responsible for interpreting laws and ensuring that they are constitutional. The separation of powers principle also includes a system of checks and balances, in which each branch of government has the power to limit the authority of the other branches. For example, the President can veto a law passed by Congress, but Congress can override the veto with a two-thirds majority vote. The separation of powers principle is designed to prevent the concentration of power in any one branch of government and to ensure that the government operates in a fair and democratic manner. Any specific problems or solutions that arise must be addressed in accordance with this fundamental principle of the American republic.
Recommended Citation: Section III.F.1₂:
The system of checks and balances is a key component of the American system of government. This principle is based on the idea that no one branch of government should have too much power, and that each branch should be able to limit the power of the other branches. The system of checks and balances is designed to ensure that the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government can check each other's power and prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful. For example, the President can veto a bill passed by Congress, but Congress can override the veto with a two-thirds majority vote. Similarly, the Supreme Court can declare a law passed by Congress to be unconstitutional, but Congress can amend the Constitution to change the Court's interpretation. The system of checks and balances is an essential part of the American system of government because it helps to prevent abuses of power and to ensure that the government operates in a fair and democratic manner. Specific problems or solutions that arise must be addressed in accordance with this fundamental principle of the American republic. By ensuring that no one branch of government has too much power, the system of checks and balances helps to maintain the balance of power and protect the rights of all Americans.
Recommended Citation: Section III.F.2₂:
Federalism is a political system in which power is shared between a central government and smaller political subdivisions such as states or provinces. It is a form of governance that aims to balance the need for a strong central government with the desire for local autonomy and decision-making. Federalism has been a cornerstone of the American Republic since its founding, enshrined in the U.S. Constitution and reflected in the division of power between the federal government and the states. The United States operates under a dual federalism system, in which the federal government and state governments have separate and distinct powers, and neither can encroach upon the other's jurisdiction without violating the Constitution. While federalism has been praised for its ability to provide a more responsive and accountable government, it has also been criticized for creating confusion and inefficiency. For example, conflicts can arise when state laws conflict with federal laws, leading to legal disputes that can be difficult to resolve. Another issue with federalism is the potential for uneven distribution of resources and services across different regions of the country. States with smaller populations or less economic power may struggle to provide the same level of services and infrastructure as larger, wealthier states, which can lead to disparities in education, healthcare, and other critical areas. Overall, federalism remains a complex and often-debated issue in the American Republic, requiring ongoing problem-solving and collaboration between federal and state governments to ensure that the system functions effectively for all citizens.
Recommended Citation: Section III.F.3₂:
Control Group vs Experimental Group
According to Rosnow and Rosenthal (2008), a control group is a group that does not receive the manipulation of the independent variable, while an experimental group is the group that does receive the manipulation. The purpose of the control group is to serve as a comparison group, allowing researchers to determine whether changes in the dependent variable are due to the independent variable, or other extraneous variables. In contrast, the experimental group is the group in which the independent variable is manipulated. The independent variable is the variable that is manipulated in an experiment, while the dependent variable is the variable that is being measured. (Rosnow & Rosenthal, 2008). In research, variables refer to any characteristic or property that can take on different values or levels. There are two types of variables in research: independent variables and dependent variables. The main difference between the two variables is that the independent variable is the variable that the researcher manipulates or changes, while the dependent variable is the variable that is being measured or observed and is presumed to be affected by changes in the independent variable. The independent variable is often denoted by "X", and the dependent variable is "Y".
Statistical significance is a fundamental concept in data analysis that is critical for making informed decisions, and drawing valid conclusions. It refers to the probability that an observed result is not due to chance, but rather to a real effect, or relationship in the underlying population. In other words, statistical significance helps to determine whether an observed difference, or effect is likely to be a true and meaningful result, or whether it could simply be due to random chance. One of the main benefits of statistical significance is that it helps to reduce the risk of making incorrect, or misleading conclusions based on data analysis. By applying rigorous statistical methods and tests, researchers can assess the likelihood that their findings are due to chance, or random variation, rather than a true effect, or relationship. This helps to ensure that decisions, and actions are based on reliable, and valid information, rather than on spurious, or false conclusions. Statistical significance is also important for ensuring that research findings can be replicated, and verified by other researchers. When a study finds a statistically significant result, it means that the observed effect, or relationship is unlikely to be a fluke, or random occurrence.
This increases confidence in the validity, and reliability of the findings, and makes it more likely that other researchers will be able to replicate the study and obtain similar results. Finally, statistical significance is critical for ensuring that resources, and interventions are targeted where they will have the greatest impact. By identifying statistically significant differences or effects, researchers, and decision-makers can focus their efforts on the areas, or populations that are most likely to benefit from interventions or resources. This helps to optimize the use of resources, and improve outcomes for individuals and communities. In conclusion, statistical significance is a crucial concept in data analysis that helps to ensure that decisions and actions are based on valid and reliable information. By assessing the likelihood that observed differences, or effects are due to chance, or random variation, statistical significance helps to reduce the risk of incorrect, or misleading conclusions, increase confidence in research findings, and optimize the use of resources, and interventions.
Confounding, Independent, & Dependent Variables
In technical analysis of stock trading, confounding, independent, and dependent variables are important concepts that can be used to understand market trends. The independent variable may be the price of the asset, which is affected by a range of external factors such as news, or earnings. The dependent variable in this context may be trading volume, or the rate of return, which can change in response to changes in the independent variable. Confounding variables in stock trading may include factors that affect market trends, but are not directly related to the stock being traded. For example, the overall state of the economy, or political instability in a country could be a confounding variable that influences the stock market as a whole. This could make it difficult to accurately predict the performance of individual assets. To account for confounding variables, traders may use various technical analysis tools, such as chart patterns, trend-lines, and technical indicators, to identify patterns in the data that can help predict future stock prices. By using these tools, traders can attempt to control confounding variables. In conclusion, understanding the concepts of confounding, independent, and dependent variables can be helpful as they provide a framework for identifying the relationships between variables and making predictions about future market trends.
According to Johnson (2018), technical analysis of stock trading involves the use of confounding, independent, and dependent variables to understand market trends and make informed decisions. The price of the asset is an example of an independent variable that can be affected by external factors such as news or earnings, while trading volume or rate of return are examples of dependent variables that can change in response to changes in the independent variable. Traders may use various technical analysis tools such as chart patterns, trend-lines, and technical indicators to identify patterns in the data that can help predict future stock prices and control for confounding variables. And according to Karakaya and Teng (2018), technical analysis of stock trading involves the use of various variables such as confounding, independent, and dependent variables to predict future stock prices. The authors emphasize that confounding variables such as market trends, economic conditions, and political instability can make it difficult to predict the performance of individual assets. The authors suggest that traders should use technical analysis tools such as trend lines, chart patterns, and technical indicators to account for confounding variables and identify patterns in the data that can help predict future stock prices (p. 234).
Trade volume is a measure of the number of shares that are traded in a particular stock market over a specific period. It is a key metric for understanding the level of activity. and liquidity. Shares are units of ownership in a company, and they can be traded on stock exchanges. When investors trade shares, they do so through a brokerage firm or a stock exchange, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). The trade volume is the total number of shares that are traded on these exchanges over a given time period. High trade volume is seen as a positive sign for a stock, or a market, as it indicates a high level of investor interest. This can increase liquidity, making it easier for investors to trade shares. However, high trade volume can also indicate a higher level of volatility, and price fluctuations, as a large number of shares are changing hands. Low trade volume, on the other hand, can indicate a lack of investor interest, or a lack of liquidity in a particular market. This can make it more difficult for investors to trade shares at the desired price. In general, trade volume is an important indicator for investors to consider when making decisions about trading shares.
According to Bollinger Bands creator John Bollinger, trade volume can provide important confirmation signals when using the Bollinger Bands for trend following strategies. As Bollinger states in his book, "Bollinger on Bollinger Bands" (2001), "The strongest signals come when both price and volume are in agreement" (p. 75). In other words, if a trend following Bollinger strategy is based on price movements crossing the upper, or lower Bollinger Band, an increase in trading volume during such a price move can provide additional evidence that the trend is likely to continue. Conversely, if a price move is not accompanied by high trading volume, this may indicate a lack of conviction among market participants, and the trend may be less likely to continue. Therefore, incorporating trade volume as a confirmation signal in a trend following Bollinger strategy can help traders identify stronger signals, and increase their confidence in the validity of the trend. Incorporating trade volume as a confirmation signal in a trend following Bollinger strategy can be useful for algorithmic trading as well. By including trade volume as a factor in their algorithms, traders can create more sophisticated, and robust trading strategies.
Price Percentage Change
The Bollinger Bands strategy can be implemented in algorithmic trading as it is a well-defined and objective approach to identify potential trend reversals. Algorithmic traders can use Bollinger Bands to automate the buying and selling of assets based on pre-defined parameters, such as the width of the bands, the moving average period, and the magnitude of the price percentage change outside of the bands. By incorporating Bollinger Bands into their algorithms, traders can eliminate human bias and emotions from the trading decision-making process. This can lead to more consistent trading results and improved risk management. Moreover, algorithmic traders can use back-testing to evaluate the effectiveness of Bollinger Bands strategy in different market conditions and adjust their parameters accordingly. This can help improve the performance of the algorithm and increase profitability. Overall, Bollinger Bands can be a useful tool for algorithmic traders to identify potential trading opportunities and manage risk in an objective and systematic way. There is no single "best" algorithm for trend following as different algorithms may perform better under different market conditions and asset classes. It is important to thoroughly back-test, and evaluate the performance of any algorithm before using it in live trading.
Conditions Illustration I:
In "Bollinger on Bollinger Bands" (2001), John Bollinger explains that the price percentage change is a critical factor in the trend following Bollinger strategy. The Bollinger Bands are based on a moving average of the price, and the width of the bands is determined by the standard deviation of the price. When the price moves outside of the bands, it is considered a significant event that suggests a potential trend reversal. However, Bollinger emphasizes that it is not enough for the price to simply move outside of the bands; the magnitude of the price percentage change is also important. Bollinger suggests that a price move of at least two standard deviations outside of the bands is necessary to confirm a trend reversal. He states that "the magnitude of the percentage change is more important than the distance from the moving average" (Bollinger, 2001, p. 72). Therefore, when using the Bollinger Bands as a trend following strategy, traders should not only look for the price to move outside of the bands, but also pay attention to the percentage change in the price. A significant price move of at least two standard deviations outside of the bands is more likely to indicate a true trend reversal.
Note. Four of five of the aforementioned conditions are met within this illustration: the volume of trade, the price percentage change, the
bandwidth, and the market price is crossing, and/or touching both of the upper and lower Bollinger bands.
Bollinger Bands are a technical analysis tool created by John Bollinger in the 1980s, which use a combination of a moving average and standard deviation to measure the volatility and relative price levels of a security. The bands consist of three lines plotted on a chart: the middle band, which is typically a 20-period simple moving average; and an upper band and a lower band, which are calculated by adding and subtracting a certain number of standard deviations from the middle band. According to Bollinger (2011), the purpose of the bands is to provide a framework for interpreting price action and identifying potential trading opportunities. When the price is trading near the upper band, it suggests that the security is overbought and may be due for a pullback. Conversely, when the price is near the lower band, it suggests that the security is oversold and may be due for a rebound. Traders can also look for "squeeze" patterns, where the bands narrow as volatility decreases, which may indicate that a breakout is imminent. Bollinger Bands have become a popular tool among traders and are used across a wide range of markets and timeframes. While they are not a standalone trading strategy, they can be a useful tool for identifying potential entry and exit points and managing risk.
In the book "Bollinger on Bollinger Bands" by John Bollinger (2011), the author discusses several trading strategies that utilize Bollinger Bands. These include, but are not limited to:  Trend following: Buying when prices touch the lower Bollinger Band, and selling when they touch the upper band in an uptrend, and vice versa in a downtrend.  Mean reversion: Taking positions when prices move away from the middle Bollinger Band, and expecting them to revert back towards it.  Breakout trading: Entering trades when prices break through the upper or lower Bollinger Bands, which can signal the start of a new trend.  Volatility trading: Using Bollinger Bands to measure the volatility of a security and adjusting position sizes accordingly. Bollinger also discusses other variations, and combinations of these strategies throughout the book. (Bollinger, 2011). The trend following strategy using Bollinger Bands, which is utilized within this analysis, is a popular and widely-used approach to trading that can be effective in capturing the momentum of a trend, and profiting from price movements in the market. This is a visual representation of the price range for any given security, and the strategy is based on the idea that prices tend to trend until there is a clear reversal.
An illustration that depicts the trend following strategy that utilizes Bollinger bands:
Note. This illustration was created within the Trading View architecture; it denotes the downward trend, the bandwidth of more than 50%, and the
Bollinger bands in the colors of red, gold, and green.
Trend Following Strategy
The trend following strategy is based on the assumption that market prices will continue to move in the direction of the prevailing trend. As practitioners of this approach, we also interpret the trend as a sign of either strength or weakness. To execute this strategy, we look for the middle band to act as support or resistance and wait for prices to break above or below it before entering a trade. When prices break above the middle band, it suggests an uptrend and could be considered a buy signal. Conversely, when prices break below the middle band, it may indicate a downtrend and could signal a sell. While market prices can trend upward, downward, or sideways, they usually remain contained. During an uptrend, prices tend to remain between the upper and middle bands, whereas in a downtrend, prices tend to remain between the lower and middle bands. If the market trend is more horizontal, containment can be observed on either side. Containment on the topside may indicate strength, while containment on the bottom-side could indicate weakness. By analyzing these patterns, we can determine the optimal time to enter or exit a trade, maximizing our chances of success, in which we claim that a consistent success rate of greater than or equal to 90% is achieved.
Trend following strategies identify entry, and exit points; here are steps to follow:  Understand the concept: Bollinger Bands consist of three lines as depicted in the "Figure 8" illustration above - the middle band (Gold), which is a simple moving average, the upper (Red), and lower (Green) bands, which are calculated by adding, and subtracting a number of standard deviations from the mean. The standard deviation used is typically two.  Identify the trend: Determine the trend direction by analyzing the price chart. If the price is moving upwards, it's an uptrend, and if it's moving downwards, it's a downtrend (Figure 8).  Use the Bollinger Bands to identify potential entry points: In an uptrend, look to buy, when the price touches, or crosses the lower (green) band. In a downtrend, look to sell, when the price touches, or crosses the upper (red) band.  Always use stop-limits to limit potential losses in case the trade goes against you. Place the stop-limit below the lower (green) band for long positions, and above the upper (red) band for short positions.  Identify a target, which is primarily greater than or equal to 1.0% per our plan; other considerations are based on the price action, and market conditions.
According to Bollinger (2011), the space between the upper, and lower Bollinger Bands is referred to as the "bandwidth." The bandwidth is a measure of the volatility of the price of an asset, with wider bands indicating higher volatility, and narrower bands indicating lower volatility. For example, Bollinger (2011) explains that, if the upper, and lower bands are close together, the bandwidth is narrow; meaning that the price of the asset is relatively stable. On the other hand, if the bands are far apart, the bandwidth is wide, and the price of the asset is volatile. Bandwidth in the context here is based on percentage points that span the upper and, lower Bollinger bands. The standard deviation is rarely set to greater than three, and all other settings are defaulted. The aforementioned "Figure 8" displays a bandwidth of more than 50% as depicted within the red rectangle. The condition is only to confirm that there is, in fact, three percentage points, or more in separation. This is regardless of the value being a negative, or a positive. The wider apart the bands are within the shortest time span is desired. The objective is to generate greater than or equal to a +1.0% as quickly as possible.
The following illustration is a continuation of the Trend Following Strategy that utilized Bollinger Bands:
Note. This illustration was created then retrieved from Trading View on February 25th, 2023. It is designed to emphasize weakness, or a
potential buying opportunity. The trend for the past several hours is more horizontal, so we assume this trend will continue.
Figure 9 illustrates that although some conditions are met, not all are. For instance, the "Price Percentage Change" in the last 24 hours is greater than -10% but less than 10%, and the "Trade Volume" is less than one million shares. To ensure reliable and meaningful results of an experiment, researchers carefully select and control the conditions under which the experiment is conducted to minimize the influence of confounding variables that could affect the results. This involves specifying the independent and dependent variables, as well as any potential control variables that need to be held constant. Statistical methods can be employed to determine the appropriate sample size, level of significance, and distribution of experimental conditions to ensure that the results are robust and can be generalized to a broader population or context. The use of appropriate statistical tests to compare the results across conditions and controlling for potential sources of bias may also be necessary. In summary, setting experimental conditions statistically means that the researcher has used appropriate statistical methods to ensure the experiment's design and execution is rigorous and reliable. This helps to minimize the effect of confounding variables and ensures that the results are trustworthy and generalizable.
The following illustration is a continuation of control variables that need to be held constant:
Note. This illustration was created then retrieved from Trading View on February 25th, 2023. It is designed to to give visual representations
of the five control variables that need to be held constant. They may not be manipulated outside of their control limits.
Control variables are an essential component of any experiment as they are the variables that remain constant throughout the experiment and are not manipulated. These variables are used to prevent any possible influence on the dependent variable, other than the independent variable(s) being tested. The independent variable is the variable that is manipulated, whereas the dependent variable is the variable being measured. The control variable, on the other hand, is a variable that is not manipulated and remains constant throughout the experiment. For instance, imagine that researchers are conducting an experiment to test the effect of a new trading strategy that generates wealth. In this scenario, the researchers manipulate independent variables such as time, standard deviation, or other factors, while holding constant other factors such as trade volume, price percentage change, bandwidth, the impact of fees, and the fact that the market price is touching and breaking the upper and lower bands. These are constant control variables that ensure that any observed effect on wealth generation is due to the independent variables alone. By controlling variables, researchers can isolate the effect of independent variables and minimize the influence of other factors that could potentially affect the dependent variable. This, in turn, helps to ensure that any observed effects are due to the independent variable and not due to extraneous factors or confounding variables. Therefore, control variables play a crucial role in the scientific process, as they help to ensure the accuracy and reliability of experimental results.
The variables that affect the bottom line, such as the frequency of trades, labor costs, and yields, are referred to as dependent variables in this context. Once traders understand their potential, they use this knowledge to trade and conduct comparative asset analysis to maximize productivity and profitability. On the other hand, independent variables are manipulated until traders achieve their desired results, as previously discussed in relation to dependent variables. Time and proficiency are two factors that can influence a trader's preferred processes, such as a quality-first policy, which prioritizes larger gains over longer periods, or high-frequency trading, where standard deviation is adjusted to maximize trade signals' speed. Regarding profitability, a trader may aim to generate at least a 1% yield while simultaneously increasing the average yield to 5%. While manipulating independent variables, it is important to maintain control variables' stability and minimize extraneous factors, such as emotions and distractions. To summarize, traders use empirical knowledge to optimize trading activities, and independent variables are adjusted to achieve desired results while controlling confounding variables. It is also crucial to monitor and minimize extraneous factors that can affect trading outcomes, such as the following: distractions, emotions, i.e., fear, greed, impatience, expectation...etc.
In the context of time, Bollinger bands are a popular technical analysis tool used in both day trading, and swing trading. In swing trading, traders may use Bollinger bands to identify longer-term trends, and potential reversal points. For example, if the price of an asset has been trending upwards, and the upper band has been consistently touched or crossed, it may indicate that the trend is becoming overextended, and due for a reversal, (Lien, 2018). Overall, Bollinger Bands are a versatile tool that can be used in both day trading, and swing trading to identify trends and potential trading opportunities. By combining Bollinger Bands with other technical analysis tools, and fundamental analysis, traders can develop a comprehensive trading strategy to help them make informed trading decisions. At the time of this writing, day trading was the main talking point, but this is only based on time. For example, if a standard deviation of three cannot produce a bandwidth of at least 3% on a one minute chart, then perhaps a 15 minute chart will produce the desired results. Large caps are notoriously narrow in the near-term, when compared to the longer term. which is why large caps are relatively more stable.
High-frequency vs Low-frequency Trading
In the context of trading, frequency refers to the number of trades executed within a given time period, such as a day, week, or month. Traders who engage in high-frequency trading typically execute a large number of trades within a very short time frame, often using algorithms. High-frequency trading can be highly profitable, if executed successfully, as it allows traders to take advantage of small price movements, and market inefficiencies that might not be visible to slower-moving traders. However, it also carries risks, as rapid-fire trading can lead to large losses, if the market suddenly moves against the trader. In contrast, low-frequency trading involves executing a smaller number of trades over a longer period of time, typically based on more in-depth analysis. While low-frequency traders may not be able to take advantage of every market opportunity, they can achieve more consistent returns over the long term by carefully selecting trades based on thorough research, and analysis. Ultimately, the frequency of trading depends on a trader's individual strategy, risk tolerance, and market conditions. Some traders may prefer to execute a high volume of trades in a short period of time, while others may take a more patient, and deliberate approach to trading based on longer-term trends, and analysis.
One of the best sources for understanding frequency trading is the book "Algorithmic Trading: Winning Strategies and Their Rationale" by Ernie Chan. This book provides a comprehensive overview of algorithmic trading, and covers various topics, including high-frequency trading, quantitative trading strategies, and risk management techniques. Chan (2013) discusses the importance of trading frequency in the context of using technical indicators such as Bollinger Bands. In automated trading systems, the trading frequency, and correlation to Bollinger Bands can be programmed using algorithms that are designed to identify trading opportunities based on the signals generated by the bands. These algorithms can be programmed to execute trades based on predetermined rules that take into account the frequency of trades, and the correlation of these trades to the Bollinger Bands. For example, the algorithm may be set to execute a buy trade, when the price reaches the lower band, and then sell when the price reaches the upper band. The frequency of these trades can also be programmed to execute automatically based on the desired trading frequency. However, it is important to note that the success of automated trading systems that utilize Bollinger Bands will depend on the accuracy of the algorithms used, and the quality of the data used to generate the signals.
Market Price vs Intrinsic Value
According to Damodaran (2012), "successful investing involves identifying undervalued assets and buying them at a price that is lower than their intrinsic value, and selling overvalued assets at a price that is higher than their intrinsic value" (p. 25). This highlights the importance of comparing market price to intrinsic value to identify potential investment opportunities. Damodaran's (2012) investment valuation process involves determining the intrinsic value of an asset by estimating its future cash flows and adjusting them for risk. This process typically involves forecasting cash flows over a given time period and discounting them back to present value using a suitable discount rate. The discount rate should reflect the riskiness of the asset and the opportunity cost of investing in similar assets. Once the intrinsic value of the asset is estimated, it can be compared to its market price to determine whether it is overvalued or undervalued. This valuation process is a fundamental aspect of successful investing and can be applied to various types of assets, including stocks, bonds, and real estate (Damodaran, 2012). Trading and investing encompasses a wide array of goods and services that go way beyond a traditional broker that deals in cryptocurrencies.
The relationship between market price and intrinsic value can be applied to goods and services related to Star Wars, just as it can be applied to any other asset or investment. For example, let's consider a Star Wars toy that is currently being sold on the market. The market price of this toy will be determined by various factors, including its popularity, availability, and demand from consumers. However, the intrinsic value of the toy will be determined by its underlying characteristics, such as its quality, durability, and uniqueness. If the market price of the toy is higher than its intrinsic value, it may be considered overvalued, and consumers may not be willing to pay the price. Conversely, if the market price is lower than the intrinsic value, the toy may be considered undervalued, and consumers may view it as an attractive purchase opportunity. Therefore, by comparing the market price to the intrinsic value of the toy, consumers can make informed decisions about whether to buy or sell the product. This same principle can be applied to other goods and services related to Star Wars, such as collectibles, memorabilia, or experiences. By evaluating the intrinsic value of these items and comparing them to their market price, consumers can determine whether they are getting a fair deal and make informed decisions about their purchases.
Market price refers to the current price at which a particular asset, security, or commodity is trading in the market. It is determined by the supply and demand factors, along with other market forces such as economic conditions, geopolitical events, and investor sentiments. Market price reflects the consensus of all market participants regarding the perceived value of the asset at a given point in time. Intrinsic value, on the other hand, is the fundamental value of an asset, independent of its current market price. It is based on the underlying economic and financial factors that determine the true worth of the asset, such as its cash flows, earnings potential, and growth prospects. Intrinsic value is generally considered to be the true value of an asset, and is often used as a benchmark for evaluating its market price. The relationship between market price and intrinsic value is a crucial concept in investing. If the market price of an asset is above its intrinsic value, it is considered overvalued, and investors may be inclined to sell the asset. Conversely, if the market price is below its intrinsic value, the asset is considered undervalued, and investors may view it as an attractive investment opportunity. In general, successful investing involves identifying undervalued assets and buying them at a price that is lower than their intrinsic value, and selling overvalued assets at a price that is higher than their intrinsic value.
Coinbase is a popular cryptocurrency exchange platform that offers different fee structures depending on the type of transaction being conducted. According to Coinbase (2022), their fee structure for buying or selling cryptocurrencies varies depending on the payment method used, the trading volume, and the country of the user. For example, in the United States, Coinbase charges a spread of about 0.5% for buying or selling cryptocurrencies with a linked bank account, while using a debit, or credit card incurs a higher fee of around 3.99% (Coinbase, 2022). In addition, Coinbase also charges a separate fee for transferring cryptocurrencies between wallets. This fee is called a network fee, and it is based on the current congestion level of the blockchain network being used. The higher the congestion level, the higher the network fee will be (Coinbase, 2022). Overall, Coinbase's fee structure is designed to be transparent and competitive, with fees varying depending on the user's location and payment method. By offering a range of fee options and providing clear information about network fees, Coinbase aims to make cryptocurrency trading accessible to a wider audience while also ensuring that users are informed about the costs involved in their transactions.
Traders can potentially benefit from increased trading on the Coinbase platform due to the fee structure in several ways. Firstly, Coinbase offers a tiered fee structure for high-volume traders, with lower fees for those who trade larger amounts of cryptocurrency. This incentivizes traders to increase their trading volume in order to access lower fees, which can lead to more efficient trading and potentially higher profits. Secondly, Coinbase's fee structure is designed to be transparent and competitive, with fees varying depending on the user's location and payment method. This can attract more traders to the platform, as they may prefer the simplicity and predictability of Coinbase's fee structure compared to other exchanges that may have more complex or opaque fee structures. Additionally, Coinbase offers a range of payment options for buying and selling cryptocurrencies, including bank transfers, credit/debit cards, and PayPal. This flexibility can make it easier for traders to access the platform and execute trades quickly and efficiently, which can lead to more frequent trading and potentially higher profits. Overall, the fee structure on Coinbase can incentivize traders to increase their trading volume, attract new traders to the platform, and provide a streamlined trading experience that can potentially lead to higher profits.
Trading Fee Impact
The following is an example illustration of a fee structure retrieved from Coinbase:
Note. Traders can potentially benefit from increased trading on the Coinbase platform due to the fee structure in several ways. Coinbase
offers a tiered fee structure for high-volume traders, with lower fees for those who trade larger amounts of cryptocurrency.
Traders should carefully consider the costs involved in trading, including transaction fees, and network fees, because these fees can significantly impact their profitability. Transaction fees are the fees charged by exchanges, or brokers for executing a trade on their platform. These fees can vary depending on the exchange or broker, the type of trade, and the volume of trades executed. High transaction fees can eat into a trader's profits, and make it more difficult to achieve a positive return on investment. Network fees, on the other hand, are fees charged by the blockchain network for processing, and verifying a transaction. For example, when trading cryptocurrencies, network fees are charged to process, and verify transactions on the blockchain. These fees can fluctuate based on network congestion, and traders who don't consider them may end up paying more than they intended. Careful consideration of transaction, and network fees is especially important for high-frequency traders, and those trading with large volumes, as the fees can add up quickly; significantly impacting their bottom line. Traders should factor these costs into their trading strategy, and choose exchanges, or brokers with lower fees to maximize their returns.
Some brokers/exchanges offer free trading to attract, and retain customers. They may have lower overhead costs, use different business models, or have other sources of revenue that allow them to offer free trading. For example, some brokers may offer free trading as a way to generate interest in other products, such as financial planning services, or investment research. Alternatively, some exchanges may have revenue-sharing arrangements with market makers, or other participants that allow them to offer free trading to retail investors. Other brokers, and exchanges charge fees for trading to cover their costs; generate profits. These fees can include transaction fees, network fees, and other charges related to the execution/settlement of trades. Additionally, some brokers/exchanges may charge other fees for services such as account maintenance, margin trading, or access to premium research, and analysis tools. In general, the decision to offer free trading, or charge fees depends on the business model of the broker/exchange, and the competitive landscape of the market. Ultimately, traders should carefully consider the costs, and benefits of different brokers/exchanges when choosing where to trade. We will discuss the benefits, and risks of free trading as it relates to the United States Republic later on within this analysis.
Scientific Method Statistics Included
The scientific method is a systematic approach used to acquire knowledge, and understanding of the natural world. It is a process that involves observation, hypothesis formulation, testing, and analysis. The method is based on empirical evidence, meaning that it relies on observations, and data that can be measured/tested. The method starts with observation, where a researcher identifies a phenomenon that they want to investigate. They then form a hypothesis, which is an explanation for the observed phenomenon. The hypothesis must be testable, and falsifiable to be considered scientific. The researcher then tests the hypothesis by designing experiments, collecting data, and analyzing the results. The results are then used to evaluate the validity of the hypothesis. If the hypothesis is supported by the data, it can be used to make predictions, and guide further research. If the hypothesis is not supported, the researcher may revise the hypothesis, and conduct further tests. The method relies on peer review, where other researchers evaluate the validity of the claims being made. The method is an iterative process, where researchers continually refine their hypotheses based on new evidence. It is a powerful tool for acquiring knowledge, and understanding of the natural world; it has led to significant advancements in fields such as medicine, physics, biology, and finance.
Statistics play a crucial role in the scientific method by providing a framework for analyzing, and interpreting data. The scientific method involves collecting data through observation/experimentation; statistics is used to analyze that data, and draw conclusions from it. Once data has been collected, it is organized then summarized using descriptive statistics, such as: measures of central tendency, and variability. This allows researchers to describe the data in a way that is easy to understand, and interpret. Next, researchers use inferential statistics to test hypotheses, and make predictions. Inferential statistics involves using probability theory to determine the likelihood that observed differences between groups, or variables are due to chance; other factors. This allows researchers to draw conclusions about a population based on a sample of data. Statistics also allows researchers to control confounding variables that might affect the relationship between two variables. For example, in a financial study, researchers might use statistical methods to control for market volatility, trading volume, and other factors that could influence the relationship between an investment strategy, and a financial outcome. Overall, statistics is an essential tool in the scientific method, allowing researchers to make data-driven decisions, test hypotheses, and draw meaningful conclusions from their research.
According to Aronson (2007), evidence-based technical analysis involves the application of the scientific method, and statistical inference to trading signals. This is a methodology in which technical analysts use statistical, and scientific methods to analyze/interpret data related to trading signals. The primary goal of evidence-based technical analysis is to identify patterns, trends, and other insights. In his book, Evidence-Based Technical Analysis: Applying the Scientific Method and Statistical Inference to Trading Signals, David Aronson describes the principles, and practices of this approach. He argues that technical analysis should be based on rigorous testing, and empirical evidence, rather than subjective interpretations that include personal biases. To conduct evidence-based technical analysis, traders must first identify the specific trading signals they wish to analyze. This may include patterns in price movements, indicators such as moving averages, or oscillators. Next, traders use statistical, and scientific methods to analyze the data, and test the validity of their trading signals. This may involve back-testing historical data, comparing different trading strategies, or using statistical models to identify correlations, and other patterns in the data. Overall, this is an approach that emphasizes objective, and systematic analysis of market data, with the goal of identifying reliable trading signals that can help people make inform investment decisions.
It is important for traders to carefully consider the costs involved in trading on Coinbase, including transaction fees and network fees, to ensure that their trading strategies are financially viable. There are quite a lot of trading platforms that offer free trading. The following illustration: "Figure 3" is an example of a trading platform with fees. The only rejection is the taker fee of 0.60% on the first pricing tier. This is because the cost to buy and sell: =sum(0.60% + 0.60%) = 1.2% > 1%. On a more positive note, the maker on the same pricing tier is within acceptable parameters, and the tier structure encourages trading by relaxing the burden of fees; therefore, the platform is not rejected. Many fees that are flat fees are easily alleviated; for instance, a $7.00 fee is alleviated to 0.50% by trading in $1,400.00 blocks. At the time of this writing; within the later part 2022, fee structures have become very competitive, and this competitiveness has driven the cost of trading down very significantly. Fees will evolve in the future, if the past precedent has anything to say.
Selecting a random population of assets is important, because it helps to avoid biases. Here are some reasons why:  When selecting assets based on a particular criteria, there is a risk of introducing bias into the selection process. For example, if assets are selected based on their recent performance, there may be a bias towards assets that have recently performed well, which may not be a good indicator of future performance.  Ensuring Diversity: A random selection of trading assets can help ensure a diverse set of assets are included in the population. This can provide investors with a wider range of options for investing their capital, and reduce the risk of everyone following the same strategy, or investing in the same assets.  Enhancing Performance: A random selection of trading assets can also help to enhance performance by including assets that may not have been considered in a more targeted selection process. This can lead to new investment opportunities, and more efficient price discovery.  Increasing Robustness: A random selection of trading assets can also increase the robustness of trading strategies by exposing them to a wider range of market conditions. This can help traders/investors develop more adaptive; resilient strategies that are better able to withstand changes in market conditions.
Contrary to popular belief, the population does not imply that people are being studied: "...statisticians refer to whatever group they are studying as a population..." (OSIKHOTSALI MOMOH et al.). The following illustration: "Figure 4" is a population of a random combination of stocks, exchange-traded funds, and/or mutual funds. Although, they do appear to all be stocks. In this case, there are 10 candidates with elements that warrant further investigation, because the price percentage change is greater than 10%, and the volume of trade is greater than 1-million. This is based on the first two conditions outlined in "Figure 1". These particular results are generated through a stock screening platform; sorted in descending order; based on the price percentage change CHG %. Dynamic results that are in real time are desired as such that the page elements are updating on their own without the need to manually refresh the screen.
The following illustration is a random population from Trading View concerning available assets provided by Coinbase:
Note. These cryptocurrency assets were screened, and sorted in descending order by the Price Percentage Change (CHG %). The filter
denotes Coinbase as the source albeit a Crypto Pairs Screener.
Mitigating & Recovery of Losses
Selecting a random population of trading assets is an essential step in financial research. Fama (1965) notes that selecting a random sample of trading assets is critical to obtaining reliable results, and reducing the impact of market-specific factors that could influence the analysis. By selecting a random population of trading assets, researchers can increase the generalizability of their results to the broader population of trading assets. Randomization ensures that the study's findings are representative of the larger population and that any observed effects are not due to chance or bias. Moreover, Fama's study on the behavior of stock market prices highlights the importance of randomization in financial research. Fama (1965) analyzed the behavior of stock market prices using statistical methods to test for patterns in the data. The author notes that selecting a random sample of stocks is essential to ensure the validity of the analysis. This approach helps to eliminate potential confounding variables, and increase the internal validity of the study. In fact, one of the most important considerations is to ensure that the sample is random within reason, which means that each trading asset in the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.
Mitigating and recovering losses are two important concepts in the world of investment and trade. Mitigating losses refers to taking steps to minimize the potential negative impact of an investment or trade, while recovering losses refers to taking action to try to recoup any losses that have already been incurred. In the context of investment, mitigating losses might involve diversifying one's portfolio across different asset classes or industries, using risk management tools such as stop-loss orders or options contracts, or conducting thorough due diligence before making an investment decision. By taking these steps, investors can reduce their exposure to risk and limit the potential downside of any one investment. Recovering losses, on the other hand, might involve taking steps to sell off under-performing assets, seeking compensation through legal channels if there has been fraud or misrepresentation, or trying to negotiate with counter-parties to recoup some of the losses incurred. Recovering losses can be a challenging process, and in some cases, it may not be possible to fully recoup the losses incurred. Overall, both mitigating and recovering losses are important strategies for investors and traders to consider when making investment decisions. By taking steps to minimize potential losses and being proactive in trying to recover any losses that do occur, investors can help protect their wealth and achieve their long-term investment goals.
In the context of trading assets, the act of buying back assets that were sold under the pretext of a buyback offer is commonly referred to as a "buyback transaction" or simply a "buyback". Buybacks are a common strategy used by traders and investors to profit from changes in asset prices. A buyback transaction involves buying an asset, such as a stock, bond, or commodity, with the expectation of selling it back at a higher price in the future. This strategy can be used to take advantage of short-term fluctuations in the market, or to profit from longer-term trends in asset prices. Buybacks can also be used by companies to manage their share prices and improve their financial performance. For example, a company may buy back its own shares in the market to reduce the number of outstanding shares, which can increase the value of each remaining share and improve earnings per share. In some cases, buybacks can also be used to manipulate asset prices or to hide financial problems. For example, a company may engage in aggressive buybacks to prop up its share price, even if the underlying business fundamentals are weak. Overall, buybacks can be a useful tool for traders and investors, but they should be used with caution and with a clear understanding of the risks involved. As with any trading strategy, it's important to do your research and to have a well-defined exit strategy in place to minimize losses and maximize profits.
Traditionally, mitigating and recovering from losses is an important aspect of managing risk when investing in any asset. Here are some potential strategies:  Diversify your portfolio: Diversification can help to spread out your risk across different assets and reduce the impact of losses in any one asset. This can include diversifying across, interest bearing stable coins, other asset classes, or types.  Set stop-limit orders: A stop-limit order is a type of order that is placed with a broker or exchange to automatically sell an asset if it reaches a certain price point. This can help to limit losses if the price drops below a certain level.  Keep a long-term perspective: Markets can be highly volatile, and short-term price movements can be difficult to predict. Keeping a long-term perspective and holding onto your investments for an extended period of time can help to smooth out the impact of short-term price movements.  Monitor market conditions and news: Keeping up-to-date on market conditions and news can help you to make informed investment decisions and respond quickly to changing market conditions. This can include monitoring prices, regulatory developments, and news related to specific assets.  Seek out professionals: If you are unsure about how to manage risk or recover from losses, seek professional advice or hire a professional.
The buyback process follows the principles set forth in this paper to ensure that it adheres to the same rules, laws, and standards as other processes described in the paper. When we say that two or more things are subject to the same principles, it means they are governed by the same guidelines or standards. For instance, if two experiments are subject to the same principles, it implies that they follow the same set of rules. Similarly, if two products are subject to the same principles, it implies that they follow the same regulations. The buyback methodology described in this context is used to mitigate trends that go against the investor or trader, and has a success rate of 90%, similar to other processes outlined in the paper. Its purpose is to repurchase shares of a company's stock that have been sold or sold short in hopes that the driving forces drive up the prices after they are re-acquired at a better price. Shorting can help investors or traders who are betting against the company to further mitigate their losses and exit their positions on a positive note. Overall, the buyback process is governed by the same guidelines and standards as other processes described in the paper, ensuring comparability and consistency. By following the same principles, investors and traders can use the buyback process with confidence, knowing that it is designed to mitigate risk and improve their chances of success in the market.
Buyback also refers to the act of repurchasing goods or services that were sold earlier under the pretext of a better price for future resale. This practice helps to free up cash and is commonly used in various trading and investment contexts. For instance, people often purchase Star Wars collectibles during a movie release when demand and intrinsic value are high, and sell them for a profit. As interest wanes, the price may drop below the original retail price. In such cases, the seller can repurchase the collectibles at a significant discount, with the intention of reselling them in the future when a new movie is released and demand and value increase again. Time is also a crucial factor, as many collectibles increase in value as time passes. Similarly, buyback can be applied to cryptocurrencies, exchange-traded funds, mutual funds, and stocks. Investors may sell their holdings for cash and then buy back an equal amount of shares when prices drop, freeing up cash in the process. Companies may also engage in buyback programs to manage their share prices and improve financial performance. By repurchasing their own shares, they can reduce the number of outstanding shares, which can increase the value of each remaining share and improve earnings per share.Overall, buyback can be a valuable strategy for traders, investors, and companies, but it is important to be aware of the risks and potential downsides associated with this practice. Proper research and planning are necessary to execute a successful buyback strategy.
Selling prematurely, only to see the price continue to rise, is a common mistake among traders and is referred to as "selling too soon" or "taking profits too early." This often occurs when a trader lacks confidence in their position or gets nervous and sells out of fear of losing money. In the buyback process, this could also occur out of fear of losing even more money. However, selling too soon can be frustrating for the trader, especially if they miss out on further profits or have to buy back into the position at a higher price. While this paper focuses on a success rate of at least 90%, there is still a chance that a trade could fail, with a probability of less than or equal to 10%. The performance is reflected in the break-even threshold, which is denoted by either a RED-dashed or GREEN-dashed horizontal line. The red line indicates negative cash flow, while the green line indicates positive cash flow. Cash flow refers to the movement of cash into or out of a business or individual's account over a specified period and is used for comparative analysis across assets. It is important for traders to have confidence in their positions and to not let fear guide their decision-making. Instead, they should have a clear strategy and stick to it, even if the market experiences short-term fluctuations. By following a disciplined approach, traders can improve their chances of success and avoid the mistake of selling too soon. The buyback process is one such strategy that can help mitigate risks and improve overall performance.
Having a cash reserve can indeed help mitigate investment risks in several ways. Here are a few reasons why:  Provides a cushion against unexpected expenses: If you invest all of your available cash, you may not have any funds left to cover unexpected expenses or emergencies that may arise. This can put you in a difficult financial situation and force you to sell your investments at an inopportune time. However, having a cash reserve can help you cover unexpected expenses without having to sell your investments, thus reducing your exposure to market volatility.  Allows you to take advantage of investment opportunities: If you have a cash reserve, you may be able to take advantage of investment opportunities that arise, such as a sudden drop in the stock market. By having cash on hand, you can buy into the market when prices are low, potentially earning a higher return when the market rebounds.  Helps manage your risk tolerance: Having a cash reserve can help you manage your risk tolerance. If you have a high tolerance for risk, you may choose to invest a smaller percentage of your cash reserve, while those with a lower risk tolerance may choose to invest a larger percentage. This can help you avoid taking on too much risk and potentially losing more than you can afford.
Having a cash reserve can be especially useful for dollar cost averaging, which is a strategy of investing a fixed amount of money at regular intervals, regardless of market conditions. Dollar cost averaging can help mitigate investment risks by reducing the impact of market volatility on your investments over time. Here's how having a cash reserve can help with dollar cost averaging:  Averaging down: If the market experiences a downturn, you may choose to invest more money in your investment portfolio to take advantage of lower prices. Having a cash reserve can enable you to do this without having to sell other investments or dip into your emergency fund.  Averaging up: If the market experiences an upswing, you may choose to invest more money in your portfolio to capitalize on the momentum. Again, having a cash reserve can help you do this without having to sell other investments or reduce your emergency fund.  In both cases, having a cash reserve enables you to invest additional funds without having to liquidate other investments. This helps reduce the impact of market volatility on your portfolio, as you can continue to invest in the market over time without having to worry about the short-term fluctuations. It's important to note that dollar cost averaging does not guarantee a profit or protect against loss, and you should always consider your personal financial situation and investment objectives before implementing any investment strategy.
Investing vs Trading
Investing and trading are two different approaches to the stock market or any other financial market. Investing typically involves buying assets with the intention of holding them for a long period of time, usually years or even decades. The goal of investing is to generate long-term growth and income, and investors often focus on companies with strong fundamentals and a proven track record of profitability. Investing is generally considered a more passive approach, and investors tend to buy and hold their positions, rather than actively buying and selling in response to market fluctuations. Trading, on the other hand, involves more frequent buying and selling of assets with the goal of profiting from short-term price movements. Traders often use technical analysis to identify short-term trading opportunities and tend to be more active in the market, executing trades on a daily or even hourly basis. Trading is generally considered a more active and potentially higher-risk approach than investing. Both investing and trading can be profitable, but they require different levels of time, effort, and skill. Investors tend to focus on long-term strategies, while traders tend to focus on short-term opportunities. Ultimately, the approach that is right for you will depend on your investment goals, risk tolerance, and personal preferences.
Cash reserves refer to the amount of money or other liquid assets that a company or individual has set aside for future use. These reserves are typically held in low-risk, easily accessible accounts such as savings accounts or money market funds. Cash reserves are important for several reasons. First, they provide a financial safety net in case of unexpected expenses or emergencies. Second, they can be used to take advantage of investment opportunities that may arise. Finally, having cash reserves can help a company or individual maintain their financial stability and creditworthiness. For companies, having adequate cash reserves is important for several reasons. First, it allows them to meet their financial obligations, such as paying bills or payroll, even during periods of low revenue. Second, it gives them the flexibility to invest in growth opportunities, such as expanding their operations or acquiring new businesses. Finally, it provides a cushion against unexpected events, such as economic downturns or natural disasters. Individuals also benefit from having cash reserves. Having a rainy-day fund can help cover unexpected expenses, such as medical bills or car repairs, without having to rely on credit cards or other forms of debt. It can also provide peace of mind and financial security, knowing that there is a cushion to fall back on in case of emergencies.
Traders are constantly dealing with financial instruments like stocks, options, and futures contracts, which can be volatile and unpredictable. When an investment decreases in value, traders may need to write off the asset to reduce their taxable income. However, this process can be more complicated for traders compared to other businesses since they manage a large number of assets and investments. In this article, we will discuss what it means to write off an asset as a trader, how to calculate losses, and what steps traders can take to manage their investments effectively.
The term "writing off" typically refers to the practice of removing an expense or asset from a company's financial records, which can help to reduce taxable income and lower the amount of taxes owed. For instance, a company might write off a bad debt as an expense, meaning it is no longer considered revenue and can be deducted from the company's taxable income. Another common type of write-off is depreciation, which involves deducting the cost of an asset over its useful life. It's important to note that writing off expenses or assets must be done in compliance with tax laws and accounting principles. In some cases, a company may require the services of a tax professional or accountant to ensure that they are accurately accounting for their expenses and assets. When it comes to traders, writing off assets usually means acknowledging a loss on an investment that has decreased in value. Traders often purchase assets with the expectation of selling them at a profit, but if the market value of the asset drops, the trader may have to write off the loss in order to reduce their taxable income. Writing off an asset as a trader can be more complex than it is for other types of businesses since traders may actively manage a large number of assets and investments.
Traders need to keep a close eye on the buying and selling of financial instruments, like stocks, options, and futures contracts, to keep track of their gains and losses accurately. To write off an asset as a trader, it is essential to determine its cost basis, which is the purchase price of the asset. The loss is then calculated based on the difference between the cost basis and the current market value of the asset. Offsetting losses on one investment can be done by realizing gains on another investment. One can do this by selling an asset that has increased in value and using the proceeds to offset the loss on the asset that has decreased in value. Writing off assets as a trader can be a complex process that requires careful tracking and analysis of a large number of investments. By managing their investments effectively and practicing diligent accounting, traders can reduce their losses and maximize their potential for profits. However, some assets can be vehicles for unattainable recovery of losses, such as bankruptcy, which is beyond the trader's control. In such cases, it is essential to diversify investments to minimize the impact of a single asset's failure and mitigate the potential for significant losses.
In conclusion, writing off an asset as a trader requires careful tracking and analysis of a large number of investments. Traders need to determine the cost basis of each asset to calculate losses accurately and consider offsetting losses with gains from other investments. Additionally, diversifying investments can help reduce the impact of a single asset's failure and mitigate the potential for significant losses. It's important for traders to keep up with tax laws and accounting principles to ensure that they are accurately accounting for their expenses and assets. By practicing diligent accounting and managing investments effectively, traders can reduce their losses and maximize their potential for profits.
Recommended Citation: Section IV.L.5₂:
Compounding Investment Strategy
In the traditional sense, compounding is an investment strategy where the returns on an investment are reinvested, instead of being withdrawn, so that the returns themselves can earn returns. In other words, compounding is the process of earning interest on top of interest. Here's an example: Suppose you invest $1,000 in a savings account that pays 5% interest annually, and you leave the interest in the account to accumulate. At the end of the first year, you will have earned $50 in interest, bringing your total account balance to $1,050. In the second year, you will earn 5% interest on the new balance of $1,050, which means you will earn $52.50 in interest, bringing your total account balance to $1,102.50. This process of earning interest on top of interest will continue each year, and over time, the power of compounding can significantly increase your investment returns. Compounding works best over long periods of time, so it's important to start investing early and stay invested for the long haul. It's also important to choose investments that have a high likelihood of generating consistent returns over time, such as stocks or mutual funds. Finally, it's important to reinvest any dividends or other income generated by your investments, rather than taking the money out of the account. This way, you can take advantage of the power of compounding and maximize your investment returns over time.
Recommended Citation: Section IV.L.6₂:
- Step 1: AP = #ACSUSD aka $ACSUSD
- Step 2: BDSP = Adjusted from 1 to 12
- Step 3: ISIP₂₁ = ISIP₀ which reset to zero after calculating CRYP's value of 26.3407840898%
- Step 4: ISIP₀ = Realigned, due to order placement at 0.0154826
- Step 5: SFIP₀ = Created and aligned, due to order placement at 3/08/23 07:35:49
- Step 6: BFIP₀ = BFIP₂₂ due to order execution at 3/08/23 06:58:20
- Step 7: IBIP₀ = IBIP₂₂ due to order execution at 0.0127817
Recommended Citation: Section IV.M.3₂:
Initial Buyback Interval Protocol₀ (IBIP₀)
The code generated is a HTML code that creates a table with two columns. The left column contains an example with steps and values, while the right column contains a template with the same steps and values replaced by placeholders. The code also includes links to different sections within the page, which are identified by their anchor tags. The table is also wrapped in a div with a class of "table-responsive" which is a CSS class to make the table responsive. Based on the code provided, the application has generated a table that shows an example and a corresponding template for a process that involves several steps. The process involves adjusting values and creating and aligning orders, and each step is described using numbered subheadings with corresponding links to a legend. The template provides a standardized format for describing similar processes, with placeholders for values that will vary depending on the specific situation. The note at the end of the table mentions that some of the values in the template are subscripts, which could be difficult to read.
Example depicting what transpired within the Figure 14 illustration below and template with values 1-19:
Step 1: AP = #BATUSD aka $BATUSD
Step 2: BSDP = Adjusted from 2 to 3
Step 2: RTP = Adjusted from 0.65 to 1
Step 4: IBIP2 = IBIP3 after calculating CRYP's value of +0.09%
Step 5: IBIP3 = Realigned, due to order placement at 0.0109524
Step 6: BFIP3 = Created and aligned, due to order placement at 4/05/23 07:41:05
Step 7: SFIP2 = SFIP3 due to order execution at 0.29315
Step 8: ISIP2 = ISIP3 due to order execution at 4/05/23 07:26:09
Step 1: AP = #value1 aka $value2
Step 2: BSDP = Adjusted from value3 to value4
Step 3: RTP = Adjusted from value5 to value6
Step 4: IBIPᵥₐₗᵤₑ₇ = IBIPᵥₐₗᵤₑ₈ which reset to zero after calculating CRYP's value of value9
Step 5: IBIPᵥₐₗᵤₑ₁₀ = Realigned, due to order placement at value11
Step 6: BFIPᵥₐₗᵤₑ₁₂ = Created and aligned, due to order placement at value13
Step 7: SFIPᵥₐₗᵤₑ₁₄ = SFIPᵥₐₗᵤₑ₁₅ due to order execution at value16
Step 8: ISIPᵥₐₗᵤₑ₁₇ = ISIPᵥₐₗᵤₑ₁₈ due to order execution at value19
Note. The template within this Figure 13 contains a total of 19 values, and values 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17 and 18 are subscripts
that may be difficult to see. All of these values are for variables that are utilized for calculations within this paper.
The following perspective also includes the regression trend lines set at one standard deviation from the mean:
Note. Retrieved from Trading View on April 5, 2023 to illustrate the buying and selling intervals as they relate to frequency
of trade, Bollinger bands, and the regression trend lines. This is also a visual representation of what transpired in the
example outline steps one through eight in Figure 13 above.
Recommended Citation: Section IV.M.1.c.vii₂:
In trading and investing, an operand is a term used in the context of mathematical or logical operations performed on financial data. For instance, an operand could be a stock price, a moving average, or a financial ratio like the price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio. Investors and traders use operands in a variety of ways to analyze and make decisions about their investments. For example, they might use arithmetic operands like addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division to calculate returns, profits, or losses. They might also use comparison operands like greater than, less than, or equal to, to compare the performance of different assets or to set price targets. In technical analysis, operands are used to identify patterns and trends in financial data. For example, traders might use a moving average operand to smooth out short-term fluctuations in a stock's price and identify the overall trend. They might also use oscillators or other mathematical operands to identify overbought or oversold conditions in the market. Overall, operands provide a flexible and powerful way for traders and investors to manipulate and analyze financial data. By using operands in their analysis, investors can gain deeper insights into the markets, make better-informed investment decisions, and potentially achieve higher returns on their investments.
Recommended Citation: Section IV.M.4.a₂:
The following four steps describe part of a trading strategy or algorithm for buying a specific asset, denoted as "#value1 aka $value2". The strategy involves several protocols or parameters that are used to determine when and at what price to buy the asset. Step 1 involves setting the asset protocol to #ACSUSD aka $ACSUSD. This refers to a specific cryptocurrency or digital asset that is being traded, for example. Step 2 involves setting the Bollinger Standard Deviation Protocol (BSDP) to a range of values from 7 to 1, for example. Bollinger Bands are a technical analysis tool used in trading to measure the volatility of a security relative to its price. The BSDP involves using these bands to determine when the asset is oversold or overbought and therefore a good time to buy or sell. Step 3 involves setting the Initial Buyback Interval Protocol (IBIP) to a range of values from 0.0114438 to 0.0127817, for example. This refers to a specific price range or interval at which the asset should be bought back after it has been sold. Step 4 involves setting the Buy Frequency Interval Protocol (BFIP) to a specific date and time: 3/08/23 06:57:49, for example. This refers to a specific time at which the strategy should be executed, or a specific interval at which the asset should be bought. Overall, the text describes a specific strategy for buying a digital asset, which involves using various technical analysis tools and parameters to determine when and at what price to buy the asset:
Step 1: Asset Protocol (AP) = #ACSUSD aka $ACSUSD
Step 2: Bollinger Standard Deviation Protocol (BSDP) = from 2 to 2
Step 3: Initial Buyback Interval Protocol₀ (IBIP₀) = from 0.0124225 to 0.0126479Step 4: Buy Frequency Interval Protocol₀ (BFIP₀) = 3/08/23 17:34:49
Step 1: Asset Protocol (AP) = #value1 aka $value2
Step 2: Bollinger Standard Deviation Protocol (BSDP) = from value3 to value4
Step 3: Initial Buyback Interval Protocol₀ (IBIP₀) = from value5 to value6
Step 4: Buy Frequency Interval Protocol₀ (BFIP₀) = value7
Recommended Citation: Section IV.M.4.b₂: http://xiimm.net/#Section%20IV.M.4.b%E2%82%81
The following text describes a set of protocols used for selling a particular asset, in which the example is identified by the ticker symbol #ACSUSD or $ACSUSD and the template is identified by values #value1 or $value2, for example. The selling protocol involves a sequence of steps. Step 1 involves defining the asset protocol as #ACSUSD or $ACSUSD, for example. Step 2 involves defining the Bollinger Standard Deviation Protocol (BSDP) within a range from 12 to 5, for example. Step 3 involves defining the Initial Sell-back Interval Protocol₀ (ISIP₀) within a range from 0.0154826 to 0.0130847, for example. Step 4 involves defining the Sell Frequency Interval Protocol₀ (SFIP₀) as 3/08/23 09:01:51, for example. The given text is related to the domain of financial trading or investment, where such protocols are used for automated trading such as algorithmic trading and/or setting up certain selling strategies for any given asset:
Step 1: Asset Protocol (AP) = #ACSUSD aka $ACSUSD
Step 2: Bollinger Standard Deviation Protocol (BSDP) = from 4 to 2
Step 3: Initial Sell-back Interval Protocol₀ (ISIP₀) = from 0.0114339 to 0.0112563
Step 4: Sell Frequency Interval Protocol₀ (SFIP₀) = 3/09/23 06:46:35
Step 1: Asset Protocol (AP) = #value1 aka $value2
Step 2: Bollinger Standard Deviation Protocol (BSDP) = from value3 to value4
Step 3: Initial Sell-back Interval Protocol₀ (ISIP₀) = from value5 to value6
Step 4: Sell Frequency Interval Protocol₀ (SFIP₀) = value7
- Recommended Citation: Section IV.M.4.c₂:
A stop limit is a type of order that is used in trading stocks and other securities. It combines elements of a stop order and a limit order, allowing traders to set both a stop price and a limit price for a trade. A stop price is the price at which a stop order becomes active, and it is used to protect against losses. When the stock price reaches the stop price, the stop order is triggered and a limit order is placed. The limit price is the price at which the trader wants to buy or sell the security. For example, let's say a trader wants to sell a stock at $50 but does not want to sell it for less than $48. They can place a stop limit order with a stop price of $50 and a limit price of $48. If the stock price falls to $50, the stop order becomes active and a limit order is placed at $48. If the stock price continues to fall and reaches $48, the limit order is executed and the trader sells the stock. Stop limit orders are useful for managing risk in volatile markets, as they allow traders to set a floor for their losses while still maintaining control over the price at which they buy or sell securities. However, it's important to note that stop limit orders are not guaranteed to execute, especially in fast-moving markets, and traders should always use caution when placing them.
A stop-limit order is a commonly used trading order that enables traders to set a limit on the price at which they are willing to buy or sell a security. It can function similarly to a trailing stop, but it requires manual adjustment to follow the price up or down. To initiate a stop-limit order, a trader must first set a stop price, which is the price at which they want their order to be activated. After the stop price is reached, the order becomes a limit order, meaning that it will only be executed at the specified limit price or better. Suppose a trader purchases a stock at $50 per share and wants to limit potential losses to 10%. In that case, they could place a stop-limit order at $41, with the limit price set at $40, allowing for a 1% buffer. When the stock price falls to or below $41, the stop order is triggered, and the limit order is put in place at $40. It's important to note that when selling, the stop price must be placed below the market price, between the limit and market price, to avoid restricting the market price's upward movement. One of the main advantages of using a stop-limit order is that it allows traders to limit their potential losses while maintaining control over the price at which they sell their shares. However, traders must manually adjust the order regularly to account for market fluctuations, making it a more hands-on approach. When selling, traders need to adjust the stop-limit order regularly, ensuring that they do not sell too early while still locking in profits.
When it comes to trading, it's important to have a solid strategy in place that aligns with your goals and available time. If you're looking to buy, it's recommended to purchase at a price higher than the current market price, while setting a stop order 1% lower than the limit price to provide a buffer. Trailing the price by 10% and manually adjusting it can help you avoid entering the market prematurely. Additionally, if you're reentering the market after a previous sale, aiming for a better price is always beneficial. However, if you don't have the time to monitor the market regularly, using technical indicators can help you make informed decisions about the market's direction. Buying from a price point below the current market price and selling when the price rises above it is a good way to go. In this context, Figure 12 illustrates a sell opportunity where the red vertical line intersects with the purple horizontal line. Rather than manually following the price down for reentry, we used technical analysis to predict where the price is heading. Based on a well-established descending channel, we think the price will continue to decline, with the lower right-hand corner of the black rectangle being the low point. We placed our buy stop 1% above that low point and set the limit 1% above the stop. In this example, the limit is between the market price and the buy stop. Always be aware of the risks involved and adjust your strategy accordingly to achieve success in trading.
Visual representation of a buy stop limit placed based upon technical indicators:
Note. Created then retrieved from Trading View on March 12, 2023. The main talking points discuss the purple, gold and
blue horizontal lines, the red and green vertical lines, and the dotted black rectangle shape.
Recommended Citation: Section IV.M.1.c.xiii₂:
Bollinger Standard Deviation Protocol (BSDP)
The Bollinger Band standard deviation is adjusted to adapt to changing market conditions and fine-tune trading strategy. Bollinger Bands are a technical analysis tool that consist of a simple moving average (usually 20 periods) and two bands plotted at a certain number of standard deviations away from the moving average. The standard deviation determines the width of the Bollinger Bands and is a measure of the asset's volatility. Within the context of this process, the Bollinger Band bandwidth is a constant that is held at greater than or equal to 3%. Not only that, the price must be touching or breaking both upper and lower Bollinger Bands, which is also a constant. When the asset is more volatile, the trader may want to widen the Bollinger Bands to account for larger price movements. Conversely, when the asset is less volatile, the trader may want to narrow the Bollinger Bands to make the bands more sensitive to smaller price movements. By adjusting the Bollinger Band standard deviation, a trader can optimize their trading strategy to take advantage of changes in market volatility. For example, during periods of high volatility, a trader may use wider Bollinger Bands to identify potential price reversals, while during periods of low volatility, they may use narrower Bollinger Bands to identify potential breakouts. Ultimately, the goal of adjusting the Bollinger Band standard deviation is to help traders make more informed trading decisions and potentially increase the bottom line.
Recommended Citation: Section IV.M.4₂:
Investments are generally considered long-term commitments, but the definition of what constitutes a long-term investment can vary. At its core, an investment involves committing either time or money, or both, to the same asset over an extended period of time. This can even include the act of creating a watch list, which requires an investment of time, even if no shares are being held. Investors may trade an investment frequently, holding shares for only a few minutes at a time, or they may buy and hold a position for months or even years. Either way, time and money are being invested in the same asset over an extended period of time. Over time, traders will begin to identify certain assets that are more recognizable and they may produce better returns. Through comparative analysis, analysts may identify investments that are top performers in terms of frequency or assets that have a higher yield. In this sense, holding an asset long-term is not the only prerequisite for it to be considered an investment. Ultimately, whether an asset is considered an investment or not depends on the trader's goals and strategies. As investors, if the traders choose this path, some may prioritize long-term growth, while others may focus on short-term gains. The key is in aligning financial goals and risk tolerance.
Depiction of an Investment (I) that is being Held, and/or being Watched:
Note. This figure 5 depiction illustrates two horizontal lines: one that is purple, and one that is gold. The purple is where the security is sold
or shorted, and the gold is where the asset is acquired, reacquired, or covered (Buy to Cover). The vertical red and green lines deal in
frequency, whereas green is indicating something was bought, and red is indicating something was sold.
"Figure 5" is indicating that we are holding an unspecified amount of shares for an unspecified amount of time. This is due to either making a bad trade, or due to it being an investment, which is something considered long-term. In any case, the asset resides within my portfolio or watch list (long-term) or will be discontinued as a one off trade (short-term). Let us assume that this is an investment that is being held. In this case, we are waiting for the price percentage change (CHG %) to indicate that it is greater than or equal to 10%. For the sake of argument, let us say that it is. Assuming that all the conditions are met, we now wait for the price to touch or breach the upper Bollinger band. A Sell Stop Limit (SSL) is implemented as follows: Limit = 0.0966; Stop = 0.0967, and if implemented correctly, the market price is greater than the stop price. To reiterate, the stop is positioned between the market price, and the limit price; the offset is one tick. This methodology addresses the premature selling of said asset.
As the upper Bollinger band moves up, so too does the purple horizontal line, which is representative of the limit price. In some cases, a Trailing Sell Stop Limit (TSSL) is utilized, but that is not always an option. The moral of this story is that we do not stop the price from going up; we follow the price up while striving for the best price. You will be pleasantly surprised, when something goes parabolic, and we assure you that it will at some point. Once we do finally stop out, we stop back in with an equal amount of shares; the improved price is greater than or equal to a 1% pre-expense yield. The liberated cash is utilized in dollar cost averaging, and will be discussed in the subsequent paragraphs. The gold horizontal line is -1% from the purple horizontal line where we exited, and it is the line that will breach, but in this case, a Buy Stop Limit (BSL) is implemented as follows: Limit = 0.0956; Stop = 0.0955. Note that the market price is less than the stop price; the offset is one tick. Follow the price down; do not stop it from going down.
Within the above diagram: "#BUYBACK (BB) Cause", the acquired asset was purchased at $3,350.00, which is depicted by the lime green horizontal line. The red horizontal line exits at greater than or equal to +1% higher. While this particular trade has the potential for attainability, the odds of success are diminished. The reason for this is that the price did not breach the lower band until roughly $3,100.00. Had the trader exercised patience, we would be discussing success as opposed to following protocol that deals with mitigating loss. There are essentially three ways of dealing with this unfortunate set of circumstance; a scenario, in which your ship is sinking, so to speak. You can take the loss, you can add shares, or you can trade with what you have, and thus, generate wealth. This is assuming your ship is not also on fire (bankrupt).
The buyback process begins after the initial investment fails within the first couple of minutes. The above diagram: "#BUYBACK Process" depicts a one minute chart, so each candle lasts for just one minute. The purple horizontal line is where we sold, and the orange horizontal line is where we reacquired the asset. With respect to time, only a couple of minutes elapsed. For the sake of argument, let us assume that the initial investment depreciated -20%, and each successful buyback is +1%. Under those assertions we can confidently state that 20 buybacks will neutralize the -20% deficit. The price may very well appreciate in value under its own power aiding in the recovery; in fact, the price could go as far as to close out the initial investment depicted in diagram: "#BUYBACK (BB) Cause". The orange horizontal line is less than or equal to -1% from the purple horizontal line, and the trade was initiated after the candle breached the upper band. Subsequently, the orange horizontal line was executed a couple of minutes later. The reacquired share count is equal to what was sold as this is a process that generates cash in its most simplistic form.
All of this unfortunate circumstance could have been avoided, if our impatient trader had only waited a couple of more minutes. The initial investment is based on the same principles as buyback only in that it begins after the lower band is breached as depicted in the diagram: "#INVESTMENT Process". In this example, the lime green horizontal line represents the entry while the red horizontal line is representative of the exit, which is greater than or equal to a +1% cash yield. As you can see by the one minute chart, the entire event lasted a couple of minutes. The bandwidth as depicted in the below diagram: "bandwidth", should be greater than or equal to 3%, and wider is better. While it is possible to be stuck in an asset, that asset should not be traded, if the aforementioned criteria depicted within events "A" & "B" are not met. In that case, it is best to exit, and thus, move on. We leave the horizontal colored lines as reference points until later.
United States Permanent Dividend Fund vs Social Security
The Social Security Administration's 2020 Annual Report shows that payroll taxes accounted for 89% of the total income of the Social Security program in 2020. Payroll taxes are the primary source of funding for Social Security, paid by both employees and employers. The current Social Security tax rate for employees is 6.2% of their earnings up to a certain limit, which is adjusted annually, with employers also required to contribute an additional 6.2% of their employees' earnings, up to the same limit. The taxable wage base for Social Security payroll taxes in 2022 is $147,000, meaning that earnings above this amount are not subject to Social Security payroll taxes. Removing the taxable wage base for Social Security payroll taxes would generate a significant increase in revenue for the program, estimated at around $1.1 trillion over the next 10 years according to a report by the Congressional Budget Office. As per the United States Permanent Dividend Fund, employees and contractors being the provider of services will bear the burden of 15%. Business entities will pay 15% at the point of sale for any sale of goods or services. This will easily supplement, and streamline processes that will allow for further cutting of expenses.
According to the Social Security Administration's 2020 Annual Report, the total income of the Social Security program was $1.062 trillion, which was broken down as follows: payroll taxes accounted for $944 billion (89%), taxes on Social Security benefits accounted for $36.5 billion (3%), interest on the Social Security Trust Fund accounted for $85 billion (8%), and other sources accounted for $5.5 billion (less than 1%) . However, the report indicated that the agency's total expenses for the year were $1.119 trillion, exceeding its income and resulting in a net cash deficit of $56.7 billion for the year . The breakdown of expenses included benefit payments of $1.044 trillion (93%), administrative expenses of $10.8 billion (1%), payments to the Railroad Retirement program of $12.4 billion (1%), payments to the Black Lung Disability Trust Fund of $1.7 billion (less than 1%), and payments to the Treasury Department for administrative services of $49.7 billion (4%) . Under the United States Permanent Dividend Fund, beneficiaries will not incur a charge, so taxing social security beneficiaries will be terminated under this plan. The existing funds, and we count six, will be terminated and the proceeds from those funds will be transferred to the United States Permanent Dividend Fund.
According to the Social Security Administration's 2020 Annual Report , payroll taxes accounted for $944 billion or 89% of the total income of the Social Security program in 2020. Payroll taxes are the primary source of funding for Social Security, as they are paid by both employees and employers and are calculated as a percentage of an employee's earnings. The tax rate is set by law and can be adjusted periodically based on the program's financial needs. The funds collected through payroll taxes are deposited into the Social Security Trust Fund, which is used to pay benefits to eligible individuals. The high percentage of income generated by payroll taxes highlights the important role that these taxes play in sustaining the Social Security program. Without payroll taxes, the program would not be able to provide benefits to millions of eligible individuals. Therefore, any changes to payroll tax rates or other aspects of the program's funding structure could have significant implications for the program's long-term financial viability. Under the United States Permanent Dividend Fund, there are no payroll taxes other than 15% charged to providers of services, such as, employees and contractors.
The payroll taxes for Social Security are calculated as a percentage of an employee's earnings, with contributions made by both the employer and the employee. The current Social Security tax rate for employees is 6.2% of their earnings up to a certain limit, which is adjusted annually. Employers are also required to contribute an additional 6.2% of their employees' earnings, up to the same limit. For example, if an employee earns $50,000 per year, their share of Social Security payroll taxes would be $3,100 (6.2% of $50,000), while their employer would contribute an additional $3,100. Therefore, the total Social Security payroll tax contribution for this employee would be $6,200. It is worth noting that the earnings limit, also known as the "taxable wage base," is adjusted annually based on changes in average wages. In 2022, the taxable wage base is $147,000, meaning that earnings above this amount are not subject to Social Security payroll taxes. Under the United States Permanent Dividend Fund, the "Taxable Wage Base" is terminated. All providers of services such as employees and contractors are subjected to a 15% fee, which is the only fee.
The employer and employee share of Social Security payroll taxes are equal. Currently, both the employee and employer pay a Social Security tax rate of 6.2% on earnings up to a certain limit, which is adjusted annually. For example, if an employee earns $50,000 per year, their share of Social Security payroll taxes would be $3,100 (6.2% of $50,000), and their employer would contribute an additional $3,100. It's important to note that while the tax rate is the same for both the employer and employee, the actual dollar amounts contributed by each may vary depending on the employee's earnings. Additionally, the employer is responsible for collecting and remitting payroll taxes on behalf of their employees, which involves additional administrative responsibilities and costs. Under the United States Permanent Dividend Fund, only the employee and contractor are assessed a charge at the point of sale. Contractors traditionally pay both the employer and employee share; however, this will change due to the fact that they are a provider of services.
The taxable wage base for Social Security payroll taxes is $147,000 for the year 2022. This means that employees and employers are only required to pay Social Security payroll taxes on earnings up to that amount. Any earnings above the taxable wage base are not subject to Social Security payroll taxes and are not paid by either the employee or employer. For example, if an employee earns $200,000 in 2022, they would only pay Social Security payroll taxes on the first $147,000 of their earnings. The employee would pay 6.2% of $147,000, which is $9,114, and the employer would also contribute the same amount. However, the employee and employer would not pay Social Security payroll taxes on the remaining $53,000 of earnings, as it is above the taxable wage base. To reiterate, under the United States Permanent Dividend Fund, the "Taxable Wage Base" is terminated; employees and contractors pay the 15%, due to them being service providers. The employer is assessed a 15% charge at the point of sale relative to selling goods and/or services.
Estimating the potential revenue that could be generated by removing the taxable wage base for Social Security payroll taxes would depend on various factors, such as the income distribution of workers and the specific tax rate applied . However, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has provided an estimate on the potential revenue impact of eliminating the taxable wage base for Social Security payroll taxes. According to a 2019 report by the CBO , removing the taxable wage base for Social Security payroll taxes would result in a substantial increase in revenue for the Social Security program, but the exact amount would depend on the specific details of the policy. The report estimated that if the taxable wage base were completely eliminated in 2020, the additional revenue generated over the next 10 years would be about $1.1 trillion . This would be a significant increase compared to the current revenue generated by Social Security payroll taxes. However, it's important to note that such a change in policy would also have implications for both workers and employers, as they would be required to pay Social Security payroll taxes on all of their earnings, not just those up to the current taxable wage base. The United States Permanent Dividend Fund will do just that; however, that will be the only charge. There will be no other deductions.
The total employee payroll that is taxed by the United States is a significant figure that is regularly reported by the government. According to the Social Security Administration (SSA), the taxable wage base for Social Security taxes in 2022 is $147,000 . This means that all employees earning up to $147,000 in wages in 2022 will be subject to the Social Security tax. In addition, the Medicare tax is applied to all wages earned by employees, with no wage limit . The Medicare tax rate for employees is currently 1.45% of all wages earned, with an additional 0.9% for high earners (those making over $200,000 for individuals and $250,000 for couples filing jointly) . Therefore, the total employee payroll that is taxed by the United States includes all wages earned by employees up to the taxable wage base for Social Security taxes, which is $147,000 in 2022, and all wages earned by employees above this amount, which are subject to the Medicare tax. The United States Permanent Dividend Fund is far simpler than how we tax presently, and because of this the overhead that totals in the billions, will be dramatically reduced. Quite simply, the provider of goods and services will be assessed 15% at the point of sale.
Based on the wage base information from references  and , we can estimate the total wages by multiplying the wage base by the number of employees. According to the Social Security Administration, the taxable wage base for 2021 is $142,800 , while the Medicare tax applies to all covered earnings and has no wage base limit . Assuming all employees earn at least the taxable wage base for Social Security, we can estimate the total wages subject to Social Security tax as: $142,800 x 159.8 million = $22.80 trillion. For Medicare tax, we can use the total civilian employment number from , which is 158.8 million: 2.9% x $4.29 trillion x 158.8 million = $375.22 billion. Therefore, the estimated total wages subject to both Social Security and Medicare taxes would be around $23.18 trillion ($22.80 trillion + $375.22 billion). However, please note that this is just an estimate based on the available information and assumptions made, and the actual total wages may vary.
According to the Social Security Administration (2022), the total amount of taxable wages in the United States in 2021 was $9,936,300,000,000. This includes wages subject to Social Security tax as well as wages subject to Medicare tax . According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the total wages and salaries paid to employees in the United States in 2021 was approximately $10.6 trillion . This includes wages and salaries paid to employees across all industries and occupations, both private and government. However, it's important to note that not all wages are subject to the same tax rates, as there are different tax brackets and exemptions that apply depending on various factors such as income level and filing status . With that said, the United States Permanent Dividend Fund will generate $1.59-trillion per year for the American Republic. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) tracks a more comprehensive measure of sales in the U.S. economy called Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The latest available data from the BEA indicates that the nominal GDP for the United States in 2021 was approximately $23.7 trillion. 15% of $23.7-trillion is an additional $3.555-trillion, which in total is over $5-trillion per year. We are sure the number is much higher.
As a self-employed individual, a contractor is responsible for paying both the employer and employee portions of the Social Security payroll taxes. Currently, the Social Security tax rate for self-employed individuals is 12.4% of their net earnings, up to a certain limit, which is adjusted annually. For example, if a contractor has a net income of $50,000, they would be responsible for paying $6,200 (12.4% of $50,000) in Social Security payroll taxes. The contractor would be required to file a Schedule SE with their annual tax return to report their Social Security and Medicare taxes. It's important to note that the earnings limit, also known as the "taxable wage base," is adjusted annually based on changes in average wages. In 2022, the taxable wage base is $147,000, meaning that self-employed individuals are only required to pay Social Security payroll taxes on their net earnings up to that amount. 15% is slightly greater than the 12.4% burden, but well worth the investment. Seems only fair that the entities that are contributing to the fund be rewarded for doing exactly, but we will discuss incentives later on within this presentation.
In summary, the Social Security program relies heavily on payroll taxes, which accounted for 89% of its total income in 2020. The current tax rate for employees is 6.2% of their earnings up to a certain limit, with employers also contributing an additional 6.2% up to the same limit. The taxable wage base for Social Security payroll taxes in 2022 is $147,000. In contrast, the United States Permanent Dividend Fund proposes a flat 15% charge for all providers of services such as employees and contractors, eliminating the Social Security payroll tax system. This system could potentially generate an additional $1.1 trillion in revenue over the next 10 years, according to a report by the Congressional Budget Office. The proposed plan also eliminates taxes on Social Security benefits and terminates existing funds. It remains to be seen whether this proposal will be implemented, but any changes to the Social Security program's funding structure could have significant implications for its long-term financial viability.
Recommended Citation: Section V.A.1₂:
Cost-benefit analysis is a method used to evaluate the potential benefits and costs of a project or decision. It involves identifying and quantifying all the costs associated with a project or decision, including direct costs (such as materials and labor) and indirect costs (such as lost productivity or environmental impact), as well as all potential benefits, both monetary and non-monetary. The aim of cost-benefit analysis is to determine whether the benefits of a project or decision outweigh its costs, and to provide decision-makers with a clear understanding of the potential risks and rewards involved in a particular course of action. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), cost-benefit analysis "is a process for evaluating the merits of a project or proposal by determining its net economic impact - the difference between the benefits it will create and the costs it will incur" . The EPA uses cost-benefit analysis to evaluate environmental regulations, policies, and projects.
Similarly, the World Bank states that "cost-benefit analysis is a tool used to evaluate the economic feasibility of a project or program by quantifying costs and benefits and comparing them" . The World Bank uses cost-benefit analysis to assess the potential economic impact of development projects in low- and middle-income countries. Cost-benefit analysis is also commonly used in business and economics. According to the Harvard Business Review, "cost-benefit analysis is a systematic approach to estimating the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives that satisfy transactions, activities, or functional requirements for a business" . In economics, cost-benefit analysis is used to evaluate the potential impacts of government policies, public investments, and private projects on the economy and society as a whole. In summary, cost-benefit analysis is a method used to evaluate the potential benefits and costs of a project or decision. It is widely used in business, economics, and government policy-making to assess the effectiveness of proposed projects, policies, and investments.
Recommended Citation: Section V.A₂:
Wealth and taxes are closely linked, as taxes are a means for governments to collect revenue from citizens and businesses to fund public services and programs. In most countries, taxes are progressive, meaning that those who earn more or have more wealth are expected to contribute a higher percentage of their income or assets to support government operations. There are several ways in which wealth can be taxed, including income taxes, capital gains taxes, and estate taxes. Income taxes are levied on the money earned from working or investing, while capital gains taxes are levied on the profit made from the sale of an asset such as stocks or property. Estate taxes are levied on the value of an individual's assets at the time of their death. The debate around taxation and wealth is often contentious, with some arguing that higher taxes on the wealthy are necessary to promote greater economic equality and fund essential public services, while others argue that high taxes on the wealthy can discourage investment and entrepreneurship, and that a more laissez-faire approach to taxation and economic policy is more effective. Ultimately, the relationship between wealth and taxes is complex and multifaceted, and requires careful consideration of a range of economic, social, and political factors.
The relationship between wealth and taxes is influenced by various factors, including economic, social, and political considerations. In many countries, the tax system is designed to be progressive, meaning that those with higher incomes or wealth pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes than those with lower incomes or wealth. However, the implementation of progressive taxation can be complicated by factors such as tax evasion, offshore tax havens, and corporate tax loopholes, which disproportionately benefit the wealthy. Furthermore, the effects of taxation on wealth distribution can vary depending on the broader economic and social context. For example, in countries with high levels of economic inequality, progressive taxation can help to redistribute wealth and reduce inequality. However, in countries with a strong tradition of individualism and limited government intervention, progressive taxation may be perceived as unfair and disincentivize investment and entrepreneurship. Moreover, political factors such as lobbying and campaign finance can also influence the relationship between wealth and taxes. The influence of wealthy donors on political campaigns and policy making can lead to policies that favor the interests of the wealthy, including tax policies. Overall, the relationship between wealth and taxes is complex and multifaceted, and requires consideration of various economic, social, and political factors. To achieve a fair and equitable tax system, policymakers need to carefully consider these factors and balance the interests of different groups.
Yes, wealth and taxes are complex issues that involve both the collection of revenue and the allocation of that revenue. The collection of revenue involves various policies and mechanisms that are used to generate funds for government operations and programs. This can include income taxes, property taxes, sales taxes, and other forms of taxation. The collection of revenue is important to ensure that governments have the resources needed to provide public goods and services, such as infrastructure, education, and healthcare. However, the allocation of revenue is equally important, as it determines how these funds are used to address societal needs and priorities. The allocation of revenue can involve a range of decisions, such as how much funding to allocate to different programs, how to prioritize spending, and how to balance competing interests and demands. Decisions about how best to use revenue can be influenced by a range of factors, including political ideology, economic theory, social values, and practical considerations such as budget constraints and competing demands for resources. Ultimately, the effective management of wealth and taxes requires careful consideration of both the collection and allocation of revenue. This often involves complex trade-offs and balancing competing interests, but is essential to ensure that government resources are used effectively and efficiently to meet the needs of society.
To simplify something complex, it is often helpful to break it down into smaller, more manageable parts and to use clear and concise language that is easy to understand. One approach to simplification is to use analogies or metaphors that compare the complex concept to something that is more familiar or relatable to the audience. This can help to make the concept more concrete and easier to understand. Another approach is to use visual aids, such as diagrams, charts, or graphs, to illustrate key concepts and relationships. This can help to simplify complex information and make it more accessible and understandable to a wider audience. Additionally, it can be helpful to avoid technical jargon or complex terminology that may be confusing or overwhelming to the audience. Instead, use simple and straightforward language that is easy to understand, and provide definitions or explanations for any key terms or concepts that are necessary. Overall, simplifying something complex requires careful consideration of the audience, the context, and the key concepts or relationships that need to be communicated. By breaking down the concept into smaller, more manageable parts, using clear and concise language, and providing relatable examples and visual aids, it is possible to make even the most complex concepts more accessible and understandable.
The United States Permanent Dividend Fund's approach to collecting revenue through a 15% royalty on the sale of goods and/or services is simpler. While this approach may simplify the collection of revenue in some ways, it is important to consider how it might impact different groups and sectors of society. For example, some businesses may see this approach as more favorable, while others may feel that they are being unfairly burdened with additional costs. It is also important to consider how this approach might impact consumers, particularly those with lower incomes who may be disproportionately affected by increased costs for goods and services. Additionally, it is important to consider how this approach might impact government revenue and funding for important programs and services. While the royalty may generate revenue for the United States Permanent Dividend Fund, it is important to ensure that sufficient funding is still available to support critical public goods and services. Overall, while the idea of simplifying the collection of revenue through a 15% royalty may seem appealing, it is important to carefully consider the potential impacts and trade-offs of such an approach. By taking a thoughtful and balanced approach, it may be possible to develop a revenue collection system that is both simple and equitable for all stakeholders involved.
To make a good point about the importance of balancing both responsible collection and distribution of funds. As stakeholders in the American Republic, "We the People" have a vested interest in ensuring that the revenue collection system is designed to support responsible spending that generates returns on investment and contributes to overall economic growth. One way to achieve this balance is by investing in programs and initiatives that are designed to promote economic growth and development. This may include investments in education, research and development, infrastructure, and other areas that have been shown to have a positive impact on economic growth and development. It is also important to ensure that the distribution of funds is equitable and supports the needs of all members of society, particularly those who may be most vulnerable or marginalized. This may include targeted investments in areas such as healthcare, social services, and affordable housing. Overall, achieving a balance between responsible revenue collection and distribution requires careful consideration of the needs and priorities of all stakeholders, and a commitment to investing in programs and initiatives that support long-term economic growth and development while also addressing the immediate needs of those who may be most vulnerable or marginalized.
Taking a ground-up approach typically involves starting with the specific needs, concerns, and perspectives of individuals or communities at the local level, and building from there to develop broader solutions or strategies. This approach emphasizes the importance of engaging and involving individuals and communities in the decision-making process, and recognizing that solutions that may work well in one context may not be effective or appropriate in another. For example, in the context of community development, a ground-up approach may involve working directly with community members to identify their needs and priorities, and involving them in the design and implementation of programs and initiatives that are tailored to their specific context. Similarly, in the context of policy development, a ground-up approach may involve engaging with stakeholders at the local level to better understand their perspectives and concerns, and using this information to inform broader policy decisions that are more responsive to the needs and priorities of those most directly affected. Overall, taking a ground-up approach can help to ensure that solutions and strategies are better tailored to the needs and priorities of those they are intended to serve, and can help to build stronger, more equitable, and more sustainable communities and societies.
A literal ground-up approach to resource utilization would involve harvesting and re-purposing waste and scrap resources, including both natural and man-made materials. This approach is often referred to as "circular economy" or "closed-loop recycling" and aims to reduce waste and minimize the consumption of new resources by utilizing existing materials in new ways. Examples of natural waste resources that can be harvested and repurposed include food waste, agricultural residues, and wood waste. These materials can be processed and transformed into products such as compost, bio-fuels, and building materials. Similarly, man-made waste resources such as plastics, metals, and electronics can be collected and recycled or up-cycled into new products. By utilizing these materials, we can reduce the need for new resource extraction, minimize environmental impacts, and create economic opportunities. Overall, a ground-up approach to resource utilization that prioritizes waste reduction and circularity can help create a more sustainable and resilient future.
Re-purposing also includes second-hand stores, which play an important role in extending the life of products and reducing waste. Second-hand stores, also known as thrift stores or consignment shops, sell used items that are still in good condition, including clothing, furniture, electronics, and household goods. By purchasing items from second-hand stores, consumers can reduce the demand for new products, which in turn reduces the need for new resource extraction and manufacturing. This can help to conserve resources and reduce environmental impacts. Additionally, by donating unwanted items to second-hand stores, individuals can give these items a second life and help reduce waste. Overall, second-hand stores are an important part of the circular economy and can help promote sustainability by extending the life of products and reducing waste.
During the Great Depression, many people discovered that they could make a living by harvesting and re-purposing waste and scrap resources. This was a time of economic hardship, and people had to find creative ways to make ends meet. By salvaging materials such as metal, wood, and cloth from discarded items, people were able to create new products or repair old ones, which they could then sell or trade for other goods. This practice of re-purposing waste and scrap resources continues to this day, both in the United States and around the world. In many developing countries, for example, people make a living by collecting and selling recyclable materials such as plastic, metal, and paper. These materials are then processed and sold to manufacturers who use them to create new products. In addition to providing economic opportunities, re-purposing waste and scrap resources can also have environmental benefits. By diverting these materials from landfills or incinerators, we can reduce the amount of waste that ends up polluting our environment and contributing to climate change. Overall, the practice of harvesting and re-purposing waste and scrap resources has a long history and continues to be an important part of our economy and our efforts to create a more sustainable future.
A ground-up approach to resource utilization can not only provide economic opportunities and help people make a living, but it can also help them build wealth and improve their overall financial situation. By harvesting and re-purposing waste and scrap resources, individuals can create new products that they can sell or trade for a profit. With careful management and responsible investment, this surplus income can be used to build savings or make strategic investments that can help people improve their financial situation over time. In addition, a ground-up approach to resource utilization can provide opportunities for entrepreneurship and small business development. By starting a business that utilizes waste and scrap resources, individuals can create jobs and contribute to the local economy, while also promoting sustainability and reducing waste. Overall, a ground-up approach to resource utilization can provide not only economic opportunities but also a path to wealth creation and financial stability. By responsibly investing surplus income and building sustainable businesses, individuals can improve their own lives while also contributing to a more sustainable and resilient future for all.
The United States Permanent Dividend Fund is not yet a current policy or program of the United States of America, but it should be. The State of Alaska has a similar program, but that is it. However, if such a policy were to be implemented, it could potentially have a significant impact on the economic well-being of individuals experiencing hardship. By accumulating a royalty on all goods and services at the point of sale, such a fund could generate a significant amount of revenue that could be used to support various social welfare programs and initiatives. If designed and implemented effectively, such a policy could help to reduce income inequality and provide a safety net for those experiencing economic hardship. However, the success of such a policy would depend on a variety of factors, including how the funds are distributed and managed, and how the policy is perceived and received by the public. Overall, policies and programs that seek to address economic hardship and promote social welfare are important for promoting a more equitable and just society, and can have long-lasting benefits for individuals and communities.
Recommended Citation: Section VI₂:
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) serves pregnant, postpartum women, breastfeeding women, infants, and children up to age five. There are income guidelines, a state residency requirement, and they must be individually determined to be at "nutritional risk" by a healthcare professional. WIC provides nutrition, breastfeeding support, health education, and other related services. The Food and Nutrition Service; an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture, administers WIC at national, and regional levels. WIC provides services free of charge; however, WIC is anything, but free. WIC employs an army at all levels of government. We argue that WIC is essential, while at the same time we advocate that the program be moved to the private sector; subsidies may be included. The existing government employees, who chose to do so, will also transition to the private sector. The three federal branches of government enforce the will of the people they serve; they facilitate, they mediate, and they delegate to states, who delegate to counties, who delegate to cities, while at the same time they are transitioning from government control to private control. Above all else, the government should be working themselves out of a job.
There is certainly a need for services designed for pregnant, postpartum and breastfeeding women, infants, and children up to age five; yet, while the government felt they needed to facilitate, and supplement this practice on behalf of the people, they have failed to transition these services to the private sector. Instead, they continuously funnel tax revenue into this program, and similar programs; growing along with the increasing population that includes non-citizens. This isn't to say that related services should be denied to non-citizens; we are simply stating that these services need not be free, because they are not. At the very least, the government should be breaking even in this regard, and we should be holding them accountable. We highly recommend that WIC be privatized, and government subsidies be utilized to keep the costs down. There is absolutely no reason why WIC could not operate similar to the Shriners Hospital for Children; a network of non-profit medical facilities across North America. There is no shortage of healthcare professionals that generate profit, and someone with more resources may choose that route, but anyone can choose the more affordable alternative. Larger healthcare providers will lower prices to compete for business, in fact.
WIC, and related services should be covered by insurance. There is an army of government employees at all levels that provide health insurance, and information; make no mistake. Growing the government for no reason, and with no end in sight will not be tolerated under this plan; nor should it be tolerated by the people. The government established that there is a need for such services, they built a supplemental "Money Pit" based on that need, they utilized the scientific method to really hone in on the needs of the people, but they also need to facilitate the privatization of the much needed services; government subsidies included. This will not upset the status quo, the American Dream will still thrive unabated. The United States federal government has the following six health insurance systems that we see: Medicare, Medicaid, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), the Department of Defense TRICARE and TRICARE for Life programs (DOD TRICARE), the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) program, and the Indian Health Service (IHS) program. Many regions, such as states, also have other related programs, or variations of the federal programs. The federal government is the largest employer; the government at all levels is massive.
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) related facilities within the Portland Metropolitan Area:
Note. This illustration was archived from Google Maps on February 13, 2023 to show WIC related logistics that existed at that time. The
logistics and people can be easily transitioned to the private sector. All major densities of people produce similar results.
The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) guarantees 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave for the birth of a newborn or the adoption of a child. Therefore, postpartum women are protected persons for 12 weeks, as well. Some state and local governments offer protections in excess of what the federal government has mandated, and these excesses should be rolled back. The federal government should force the excesses to be rolled back, in fact. The FMLA is administered by the Wage and Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor, and was signed into law on February 5, 1993. There is quite a lot more to FMLA without the state and local governments making matters even more complicated than they are. State and local governments should administrate as set forth by the federal government rather than create their own variations of the truth. The federal government serves the people; circumventing the government is counter-intuitive, and this means that FMLA does not mean the same thing in a state such as Oregon, for example.
The Wage and Hour Division (WHD) was formed with the enactment of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, and is an enforcer of federal labor laws. As enforcers, it is they who should force the state and local governments into compliance. Our facilitating federal government is one that enacts policies that enable businesses and branches of government at all levels to better create value in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness. They employ neutral third person unbiased mediators who help all applicable parties reach resolutions. During this very tedious process, governments raise the knowledge, and skill base of their citizens, at every level, by and through research, and development. The federal government is an enforcer, until enforcement is delegated to the individual states, but they cannot very well do that, when the power that was delegated is misused. A delegate is an entity that is charged with the representation of others. For instance, the federal government represents the people, the state represents the federal government, the county represents the state, and the municipalities represent the counties. That is typical of a structured company, and we demand no less.
While the WHD's role is to enforce private employers into compliance with federal labor laws, it does not traditionally enforce government entities into compliance even though government entities are employers. Additionally, we argue that the federal government should facilitate policies that enable businesses and government entities to create value in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. While this is the desired outcome of some government policies, it is not the primary objective of the federal government as a whole. The federal government has a wide range of responsibilities, including providing for national defense, regulating interstate commerce, and promoting the general welfare, among others. The delegation of power from the federal government to the states should not be misused; to emphasize, delegation is appropriate only when the delegated power is not misused. "Misuse" in the context here are those government entities that accept the delegation; subsidies included who would divert subsidies to something other than what was intended, or subvert the will of the people who the federal government represents. Although many government entities abide by the federal laws at a minimum, they use the laws as a pretext to expanding the laws to justify increased taxation, and legal extortion.
The aforementioned two paragraphs, and combined text present two perspectives pertaining to the role of the federal government: enforcing labor laws, promoting efficiency, and effectiveness in business; government. The first paragraph emphasizes WHD's role in enforcing federal labor laws; it argues that the federal government should facilitate policies to increase the efficiency, and effectiveness of business; of government. It also emphasizes the need for proper delegation of power from the federal government to the states, and emphasizes that misuse of that power is not acceptable to its people. The second paragraph argues that the federal government has a wide range of responsibilities beyond enforcing labor laws; promoting efficiency, and effectiveness. It also argues that misuse of power, particularly by government entities that accept delegation from the federal government, is a major concern. For emphasis, the combined text presents two different perspectives on the role of the federal government, with the first paragraph emphasizing the importance of enforcing labor laws, promoting efficiency. The second paragraph highlights the need for balance, and caution, when delegating power, and government responsibility. Rather than expand on federal labor laws, states can petition on behalf of its people; others might also benefit from amending existing federal laws.
Organizational charts are typically a pyramid of sorts; small at the top, and then branching out. These charts often include both internal and external factors. The benefits greatly outweigh risks with respect to mapping complex systems; this is fact. Mapping regular updates with a rapidly advancing civilization involves a lot of work, but this is the 21st-century. Mapping should take into account structures that are focused on innovation, creativity, and collaboration with continuity. The overall theme is one of transparency that builds trust, but this is not to say that some aspects are not secure, and private. We are not advocating that the government create another branch; we are advocating that they employ unbiased, and neutral third-persons to both facilitate, and mediate the mapping of a very complex system. Transparency implies openness, communication, and accountability; it increases engagement with laser focus as it relates to recruitment, innovation, and leadership. The government is a "Money Pit", so naturally, growing the government is a bad business decision. The government at all levels should facilitate, and mediate compromise in the most transparent way imaginable. It should promote prosperity with respect to business entities of all walks of life who choose to pursue the American Dream.
The following illustration is an example of an organizational chart:
Note. This illustration was obtained from Wikimedia Maps on February 18, 2023. The Diagram of the Federal Government and American
Union is an organizational chart of the Federal Government and the American Union designed by N. Mendal Shafer, and published circa
July 15, 1862.
The idea that organizational charts are typically a pyramid is a common understanding, but it would be beneficial to provide an example of this structure to further clarify. For instance, a company's organizational chart might include the CEO at the top, followed by the executive team, then department heads, and finally, individual employees. In the case of the United States government at all levels, the people, as set forth by the United States Constitution, are at the head of the aforementioned illustration in Figure 2, followed by the federal government, the states, the counties, the cities, and so forth, but it is the people who run the government. If the chief executive officer (CEO) is the top position in an organization and responsible for implementing existing plans; policies, improving the company's financial strength, supporting ongoing digital business transformation, and setting future strategy, then so too does United States citizens. Representatives are not elected, so that they can impose their own will however they seem fit, because that is subversion, if they do. Elected representatives are appointed people who speak on behalf of others (the people they represent). Sadly, that is rarely ever the case, and we must hold them to account.
Citizen data gathering refers to the collection of information by citizens, usually through surveys or other forms of data collection, with the goal of identifying issues and advocating for change within the United States Federal Legislative Branch. This type of data gathering is important because it can help to uncover problems that may not be immediately obvious, and can provide evidence to support advocacy efforts. Internal data gathering focuses on the operations of the government, including the efficiency and effectiveness of government programs, the allocation of resources, and the management of government employees. External data gathering, on the other hand, focuses on the impact of government policies on citizens, such as the quality of public services, the fairness of laws, and the level of public engagement in the political process. By gathering and analyzing data on these internal and external aspects of the government, citizens can work to identify areas where improvement is needed and advocate for change. This can include lobbying government officials, organizing protests or other forms of public demonstration, and raising awareness about important issues through social media and other channels. Overall, citizen data gathering is an important tool for holding government officials accountable and promoting transparency and fairness in the United States Federal Legislative Branch. By working together to gather and analyze data, citizens can help to ensure that the government is working in the best interests of all Americans.
Additionally, while the benefits of mapping complex systems may be factual, there are many examples. For instance, mapping complex systems help organizations identify inefficiencies, opportunities for improvement, and potential areas of risk. Mapping helps organizations make more informed decisions, improve communication, and foster collaboration with laser focus. To further emphasize the importance of transparency, we present the following examples of situations where lack of transparency has caused problems. For instance, in the corporate world, companies like Enron and WorldCom were able to hide fraudulent accounting practices for years, leading to significant financial losses for investors. On the other hand, companies like Amazon and Google have been successful in building trust with their customers, and investors by being transparent about their business practices. Finally, to strengthen the idea that the government should not create another branch, but instead employ unbiased third-persons to facilitate and mediate complex systems, we offer the following examples of situations where the government already has. For instance, mediation is often used in labor disputes to help workers, and employers reach an agreement. Additionally, many court systems use mediators to help parties reach settlements. Overall, the provided examples further clarify, and strengthen the ideas presented within this proposal.